8. CHINESE CALENDAR

List of Appendixes

Appendix 20. Chinese Abrahamic calendar. 2012CE (leap). 26 NEW SECCHI.

Appendix 21. Chinese Abrahamic calendar. 2012CE (leap).

Appendix 22. Chinese Abrahamic calendar. 2013CE [Chinese Abrahamic Calendar. 2013CE]

 

The author has put in a basis of a new universal eternal Chinese national calendar traditional Chinese ecliptic system of co-ordinates «24 Sekki=360 of days» [«24 Sekki»] in a combination with offered it a universal matrix (the author, at transition with ecliptic co-ordinates in real physical co-ordinates, has improved in the calendar system and has defined it as «26 Sekki» =365 [366] days).

For the coordination ecliptic co-ordinates with real physical co-ordinates the author has suggested to add to (enter) two new "main moment" in a traditional Chinese calendar, naming them is conditional («Mao» and «Deng») in honor of the founder of the People’s Republic of China Mao and the outstanding reformer of the People’s Republic of China Deng. Thus it is important to underline that all semi intervals of "main moment" offered by the author are strictly equal among themselves and contain for 14 days whereas original Chinese semi intervals have no stable value. Their sizes fluctuate on duration from 15 till 20 days.

The history of creation of the Chinese calendar is one of the most difficult and the most important in the history of the Civilization. Influence of the Chinese lunar and luni-solar calendars is obviously traced in cultures of "ancient" Babylon, Greece and Israel. Probably there is also any direct "ancient" communication with a calendar of Maya with which the new calendar has unexpectedly appeared in dialectic pair. More low main principles of the Chinese calendar which the author considered by working out of the offer are short stated.

The history of the Chinese calendar can be tracked today till XIV century BCE. There is a legend that Yellow Emperor Huángdì has invented a calendar approximately in 2637 BCE (XXVII BCE).

In modern China the lunar calendar is everywhere used, as before. «The holiday of spring» (the Chinese New Year) is necessary annually per day «the First New Moon» after January, 1st on the Gregorian calendar or on «the Second New Moon», considering from a winter solstice (on December, 21-22st previous year on the Gregorian calendar), the New Moon which occurs accordingly not earlier than January, 21st and not later than February, 20th on the Gregorian calendar «the Beginning of Spring» annually is necessary on 4, 5 or 6 date of February on the Gregorian calendar.

China it is unique it is geographically located. On its territory (in East hemisphere of the Earth) it is exact through Canton (Guangzhou) passes Northern tropic (Tropic of Cancer) on which the extreme "Heavenly" point of the Summer Vertical Solstice (the Sun is located precisely in Zenith.)

Therefore Chineses name fairly name the country of "Heavenly Empire". In the summer in June the Sun is above Tropic of Cancer in Northern hemisphere strictly vertically. Physical methods of measurement allowed the Chinese astronomers to measure precisely annually exclusively duration of real year from one till other moment of the Summer Solstice on "Tropic of Cancer" (therefore such year name "tropical").

The line of Northern tropic (tropic of Cancer) passes in the Western hemisphere through Mexico (precisely through city Mozatlan) near to peninsula Yucatan on which lived the people of a tribe of Maya. Therefore astronomers of a tribe of Maya had possibility rather precisely to measure duration of tropical year (365.242203 days) in a point of the Winter Solstice and to create on August, 13th 3113 BCE (476 years prior to Yellow Emperor Huángdì in China) a calendar (Haab).

The full cycle of a calendar of Maya makes 5125 years and 4 and a half a month. In day of the Winter Solstice, on December, 22nd 2012 CE (on the Gregorian calendar) or that the same on December, 20th (on offered Abrahamic to a calendar) the following new cycle of a calendar of Maya began the author.

Other east calendars or are completely identical Chinese (Korean), or are in many respects similar with Chinese, but have some differences (in Vietnam - "Rabbit" in a zodiac cycle is replaced by "Cat"; Tibetan - names of animals are a little changed. Japanese have refused the Chinese lunar calendar and completely have passed to the European Gregorian calendar.

 

Chinese agricultural ecliptic the calendar.

The Earth within a year describes in space a cycle on ecliptic (on ecliptic to a longitude) concerning "motionless" stars. (3600) on ecliptic the Chinese astronomers have divided this entire circle into «24» equal parts (arches equal 150) in a plane ecliptic. Figures which express borders of these equal parts name "main moment". Each such arch the Earth passes in space within 14-16 days (more often for 15 days or that too most, for «half of usual physical observable month in a cycle of the reference of the Moon round the Earth»). In each month happens either «1» main moment or «2».

Therefore year in Chinas is shared for 24 non-uniform seasons (a half moon «half month») or «24 Sekki» [«24 Sekki»] (on number of "main moment" of a calendar). These seasons are considered today at a choice of a kimono and ornaments for hair dresses, in features by geishas in Japan. Japanese have refused the Chinese lunar calendar but have not refused its ancient traditions the general with the Chinese.)

This calendar defines division of year into 24 non-uniform agricultural seasons (in parallel in China, Korea, Vietnam and Japan) by Sun position on ecliptic in a range of 360 degrees which cannot be displayed precisely in real calendar dates because of an incommensurability of 360 degrees of a circle with 365 and 366 days of a real annual cycle. Thus Seasons in an agricultural calendar are not connected in any way with Moon movement.

Traditional Chinese «24 Sekki=360 of days» [«24 Sekki»]:

1). Risshun (立春): February 4Beginning of spring

2). Usui(雨水): February 19—Rain water

3). Keichitsu (啓蟄): March 5—awakening of hibernated (insects)

4). Shunbun (春分): March 20Vernal equinox, middle of spring

5). Seimei(清明): April 5—Clear and bright

6). Kokuu(穀雨): April 20—Grain rain

7). Rikka (立夏): May 5Beginning of summer

8). Shōman (小満): May 21—Grain full

9). Bōshu (芒種): June 6—Grain in ear

10). Geshi (夏至): June 21Summer solstice, middle of summer

11). Shōsho (小暑): July 7—Small heat

12). Taisho(大暑): July 23—Large heat

13). Risshū (立秋): August 7Beginning of autumn

14). Shosho (処暑): August 23—Limit of heat

15). Hakuro (白露): September 7—White dew

16). Shūbun (秋分): September 23Autumnal equinox, middle of autumn

17). Kanro (寒露): October 8—Cold dew

18). Sōkō (霜降): October 23—Frost descent

19). Rittō (立冬): November 7Beginning of winter

20). Shōsetsu(小雪): November 22—Small snow

21). Taisetsu(大雪): December 7—Large snow

22). Tōji(冬至): December 22Winter solstice, middle of winter

23. Shōkan (小寒): January 5 Small Cold—a.k.a. 寒の入り (Kan no iri) entrance of the cold.

24). Daikan (大寒): January 20—Major cold.

Days can vary by ±1 day.

 

The same Chinese agricultural ecliptic the calendar displayed particularly in arc degrees ecliptic, is the following picture.

This calendar defines division of year into 24 agricultural seasons (in parallel in China, Korea, Vietnam and Japan) by Sun position on ecliptic in a range of 360 degrees which cannot be displayed precisely in real calendar dates because of an incommensurability of 360 degrees of a circle with 365 and 366 days of a real annual cycle. Thus Seasons are not connected in any way with Moon movement.

 

Chinese agricultural ecliptic the calendar

Ecliptic
longitude

Seasons

Chinese the name

Japanese
the name

Korenian
the name

Vietnam
the name

The approximate number of

Gregorian calendar

315°

The beginning of spring

立春
lichun

立春
rissun

입춘 (立春)
ipchun

Lập xuân
lep suan

4-5 February

330°

Rain water

雨水
yujshuj

雨水
usuj

우수 (雨水)
usu

Vũ thủy

19-20 February

345°

It's time to wake up

 the larvae

Awakening of hibernated (insects)

驚蟄 ()
tsintszhe

啓蟄
kejtitsu

경칩 (驚蟄)
kyonjchhip

Kinh trập

5-6 March

Spring Equinox

春分
chunjfenj

春分
syumbun

춘분 (春分)
chhunbun

Xuân phân
syuanfan

20-21 March

15°

Clear and bright

清明
tsinmin

清明
sejmej

청명 (清明)
chhyonjmyon

Thanh minh

4-5 April

30°

Rains for cereals

Grain rain

穀雨 (谷雨)
guyuj

穀雨
koku:

곡우 (穀雨)
kogu

Cốc vũ

20-21 April

45°

Start of summer

立夏
lisya

立夏
rikka

입하 (立夏)
iphhaha

Lập hạ

5-6 May

60°

The low abundance

Grain full

小滿 ()
syaomanj

小満
syi:man

소만 (小滿)
soman

Tiểu mãn

21-22 May

75°

Ears

 the corn

Grain in ear

芒種 (芒种)
manchzhun

芒種
bo: syu

망종 (芒種)
manjdzhon

Mang chủng

5-6 June

90°

Summer Solstice

夏至
syachzhi

夏至
gesi

하지 (夏至)
haji

Hạ chí

21-22 June

105°

Low heat

小暑
syaoshu

小暑
syo: syo

소서 (小暑)
sose

Tiểu thử

7-8 July

120°

Big heat

大暑
dashu

大暑
tajsyo

대서 (大暑)
dese

Đại thử

23-24 July

135°

Beginning of autumn

立秋
litsu

立秋
rissyu:

입추 (立秋)
iphchhu

Lập thu

7-8 August

150°

Cessation of heat

Limit of heat

處暑 (处暑)
chushu

処暑
syosyo

처서 (處暑)
chhoso

Xử thử

23-24 August

165°

White Dew

白露
bajlu

白露
hacuro

백로 (白露)
pecchro

Bạch lộ

7-8 September

180°

Autumn equinox

秋分
tsyufenj

秋分
syu:bun

추분 (秋分)
chhupun

Thu phân

23-24 September

195°

Cold dew

寒露
hanjlu

寒露
kanro

한로 (寒露)
hallo

Hàn lộ

8-9 October

210°

Hoarfrost

Frost descent

霜降
shuanzyan

霜降
ko: ko:

상강 (霜降)
sanjgan

Sương giáng

23-24 October

225°

The beginning of winter

立冬
lidun

立冬
ritto:

입동 (立冬)
ipdon

Lập đông

7-8 November

240°

Small snow

小雪
syaosyue

小雪
syo: setsu

소설 (小雪)
sosolj

Tiểu

22-23 November

255°

Big snow

大雪
dasyue

大雪
tajsetsu

대설 (大雪)
desolj

Đại tuyết

7-8 December

270°

Winter Solstice

冬至
dunchzhi

冬至
to: dzi

동지 (冬至)
tongji

Đông chí

21-22 December

285°

Small cold

小寒
syaohanj

小寒
syo: kan

소한 (小寒)
sohan

Tiểu hàn

5-6 January

300°

The big colds

Major cold

大寒
dahanj

大寒
dajkan

대한 (大寒)
dehan

Đại hàn

20-21 January

 

 

1). [4-18] February (15 days) 315°

[19-04] March (14-15 days) 330°- total: 29-30 days (in normal and leap yearrespectively).

2). [05-19] March (15 days) 345°

[20-04] April (16 days) 0° = [3600]-total: 31 days

3). [05-19] April (15 days) 15°

[20-04] May (15 days) 30°-total: 30 days

4). [05-20] may (16 days) 45°

[21-05] June (16 days) 60°-total: 32 days

5). [06-20] June (15 days) 75°

[21-06] July (16 days) 90°-total: 31 days

6). [07-22] July (16 days) 1050

[23-06] August (15 days) 120°-total: 31 days

7). [07-22] August (16 days) 135°

[23-06] September (15 days) 150°-total: 31 days

8). [07-22] September (16 days) 165°

[23-06] October (14 days) 180°-total: 30 days

9). [07-22] October (16 days) 195°

[23-06] November (15 days) 210°-total: 31 days

10). [07-21] November (15 days) 225°

[22-06] December (15 days) 240°-total: 30 days

11). [07-21] December (15 days) 255°

[22-04] January (14 days) 270°-total: 29 days

12). [05-19] January (15 days) 285°

[20-03] February (15 days) 300°-total: 30 days

The general result of the sum 12 ecliptic months has made 365 days in usual year and 366 days in leap year.

 

The circle plane on ecliptic to a longitude has five key "main moment". It is «00 = 3600», «900», «1800», «2700» and «3150». «The spring Equinox», «a summer Solstice», «an autumn Equinox», «a winter Solstice» and «the Chinese New Year or the Beginning of Spring».

The Chinese astronomers have divided a numerical axis of time for groups (cycles) for «60» years everyone. Cycles became count or from 2397 BCE, or from 2637 BCE, but have stopped definitively on figure 2698 BCE = «0» year, and 2697 BCE = «1» year. Each cycle for the best storing named on names of various sacred animals in number of «12» pieces: a rat, a bull, a tiger, a rabbit, a dragon, a snake, a horse, a sheep, a monkey, a cock, a dog and a pig (pagan symbols). All other world uses cycles for «100» years (on "centuries"), instead of for «60» years.

Chineses used a combination of a number from «12» sacred animals («a terrestrial branch»), displaying «12»-year-old cycle time of Jupiter (11.867 years) round the Sun, and a number from «5» Chinese elements (a tree-color "blue-green", fire-color "red", the earth-color "yellow", metal-color "white", watercolor "black" which name «a heavenly trunk») which product gives figure "60" (12х5=60) [the sexagenary cycle].

Actually «the heavenly branch» has «10» Chinese elements but because of different "parity" Chineses only use half of these binary (that is "double") combinations (that is «60» of «120»).

The rule of "parity" demands that "the odd" figures of the same kind were combined only with "odd" figures of other number and on the contrary, "the even" figures of the same kind were combined only with "even" figures of other number. It is absolutely any digital matrix of the account of the big figures. It not defensible difficult in application is to practical historical Chronology. The modern account of chronology on centuries is much easier and more convenient.

The example of a combination from 10 heavenly branches [the 10 heavenly stems] and 12 terrestrial branches [earthly branches] in a 60-year-old cycle is lower resulted.

[An important aspect of the Chinese calendar is the sexagenary cycle (干支, gān zhī). This is a combination of the 10 heavenly stems (天干, tiān gān), and the 12 earthly branches (地支, dì zhī).]

 

Stems

天干

tiān gān

Element

Branches

地支

dì zhī

Animal

1

jiǎ

Wood

1

Rat

2

Wood

2

chǒu

Ox

3

bǐng

Fire

3

yín

Tiger

4

dīng

Fire

4

mǎo

Rabbit

5

Earth

5

chén

Dragon

6

Earth

6

Snake

7

gēng

Metal

7

Horse

8

xīn

Metal

8

wèi

Goat

9

rén

Water

9

shēn

Monkey

10

guǐ

Water

10

yǒu

Chicken

       

11

Dog

       

12

hài

Pig

 

It is shown, how these cycles work. The first is with the first (1.-1). The second is with the second (2.-2). And so on to the tenth with the tenth (10.-10). But further the eleventh with the first (11.-1). The twelfth is with the second (12.-2). The thirteenth is again with the first (13.-1). Through 6 heavenly branches and 5 cycles of terrestrial branches, reach to 60 which look, as a combination ten and twelve (10.-12). Further receive again a combination of the first with the first (1.-1) with which the following 60-year-old cycle [a new sexagenary cycle] begins.

[To explain how this cycle works, let us denote both the stems and the branches by their numbers. We denote 1 by (1.-1) or (, ), 2 by (2.-2) or (, ) and so on up to (10.-10) or (, ). But now we have run out of stems, so we denote 11 by (1.-11) or (, ) and 12 by (2.-12) or (, ). Now we have run out of branches, too, so 13 become (3.-1) or (, ). We continue in this way through 6 cycles of stems and 5 cycles of branches up to 60, which is (10.-12) or (,). The next number is then (1.-1) or (, ), which starts a new sexagenary cycle.]

For transfer of year on modern "western" count of years in the Chinese cyclic calendar it is necessary to add to number of year number "2397" or «2697» (year which is accepted for the beginning of the cyclic account), and the received sum to divide into number "60". And on the contrary, for transfer from the Chinese system of the account it is necessary to subtract from number of the Chinese year «2397» or «2697» and the received sum to increase on «60».

Helmer Aslaksen[i] from Department of Mathematics[ii] National University of Singapore[iii] (01/23/2012) has in detail described history of the Chinese calendar.

Days Chineses divide at "24 o'clock and each «2»hours since 23 o'clock in the evening, they have appropriated any to one of counted above sacred animals, since a rat.

The Babylon astrologists similarly considered that each hour of days is under the protection of a certain planet which "operates" it. Planets had two groups round the Sun. At first there were "distant" Planets: (1) Saturn, (2) Jupiter, (3) Mars, and (4) Sun. Then after the Sun there were "near" Planets: (5) Mercury, (6) Venus and (7) Moon. Actually instead of the Moon there should be a Planet "the Earth". But the Earth in this case is presented by the invariable companion the Moon.

The account of hours began since Saturday and its first hour Saturn, the second - Jupiter, the third - Mars, the fourth - the Sun, the fifth - Mercury, the sixth - Venus and the seventh - the Moon "operated". Then all cycle again repeated.

As a result it has turned out that first hour of next day, Sundays, the Sun "operated", the first hour of Monday got to the Moon, Tuesday - to Mars, environment - to Mercury, Thursday - to Jupiter and Friday - Venus. The planet operating on the first hour of days patronized all day and day received its name.

"Ancient" Chineses had not a 7-day week, only 10-day week on «12» names of their sacred animals, that is a lot of. Therefore they did not name days of the 10-day week names of the sacred animals and consequently at "ancient" Chineses days of week of names had no.

The Babylon system of names of days of week has been adopted by Romans and consequently names of planets of Solar system were identified with names of Roman and Greek pagan gods. They "operated" days of week which have received their names. The Roman names have removed to calendars of many people of the Western Europe. "Planetary" names of days of week are and in English and the Scandinavian languages, but names in them are made on behalf of similar pagan "local" gods of the germane-Scandinavian mythology.

Day of Saturn at Babylonian was considered as the unhappy; this day it was recommended not to be engaged in affairs and it has received the name "Shabbat" - rest. Thus it has transferred to a weekend. The name has passed in Jewish, Arabian, Slavic (Saturday), some West European languages.

Each «1», «11» and «21» day of month were at Chineses days of rest or "days off" (that is each week proceeded exactly «10» days). Each usual simple Chinese year contained «36» full weeks and even «5» days in addition (that is exactly half of 10-day week), that is (36х10 = 360 + 5 = 365 days), and in each leap year de facto were «6» additional days (36x10 = 360 + 6 = 366 days).

In a year was «6» full virtual (not observed really in the nature in Moon cycles) months for «6» weeks in each month and for «60» days in each month. «1» ecliptic month is on number of days is equal to "2" usual physical months. One hour contained «60» minutes. One minute contained «60» seconds.

The «60» ecliptic months made «10» ecliptic years and were equal «3600» ecliptic to days. It is «60» ecliptic years made «360» ecliptic months or «21600» days (360 х 60 = 21600). It made «720» usual months (21600:30=720) for «30» days and was equal about all to the same to "60" usual years for «12» months (720:12=60). It is «100» ecliptic years made «600» ecliptic months and «36000» ecliptic days («1200» months for «30» days and all same «100» years for «12» months.

Figure "60" directly follows from spherical geometry which "ancient" Chinese astronomers used at definition of position of the Earth relatively the Sun. All Chinese calendar is constructed on «ecliptic longitude co-ordinates» positions of the Earth during Sun movement on a traectory ecliptic within tropical year. Annual ecliptic the longitude makes «3600». Each of «6» ecliptic makes months exactly «600» (6 х 600 = 3600). Every day ecliptic year in ecliptic co-ordinates it is equal strictly «10». And such ecliptic days-degrees in a year it is strict «360», instead of «365» in usual year, and not «366» in leap year. In ecliptic month is of exactly «6» weeks.

Each week contains on «100» or on «10» ecliptic days. Therefore in ecliptic month is strictly «60» ecliptic days and nights (days), that is the doubled quantity of usual physical months for «30» days. Ecliptic day and ecliptic night are strictly equal each other and everyone is equal «10» ecliptic to hours (figure "10" it «a heavenly trunk» on terminology of "ancient" Chinese astronomers). "One" ecliptic hour contains «60» minutes. "One" ecliptic minute contains «60» ecliptic seconds. Ecliptic day and ecliptic night contain everyone separately on «36 000» ecliptic seconds accordingly.

Ecliptic days (ecliptic day + ecliptic night) contain «20» ecliptic hours. Ecliptic hour for 12 minutes (0.2 hours) is longer (24: 20 = 1.2) than usual physical daily hour (in usual physical days «the terrestrial branch» contains «24» usual physical hours, that is doubled: «12 х 2 = 24»). Ecliptic hour is not commensurable with daily hour. Simply it is different things. Ecliptic units of measure are virtual ideal units of spherical geometry, instead of real units of measure of the physical world. They are very convenient in calculations.

Ecliptic day is longer than daily physical day and precisely is not commensurable with it. In calculations the length ecliptic day in usual year «1.0139» usual physical days (365: 360 = 1.0139) is accepted. In calculations the length ecliptic day in leap year «1.0167» usual physical days (366: 360 = 1.0167) is accepted. Therefore at ecliptic year is not present the concept "leap" year. All ecliptic years are absolutely equivalent among themselves and strictly equal each other in arc degrees measurement.

They contain different number of real physical days in usual and leap years. However in practice it is necessary to use daily physical year. And consequently in the real physical world do return recalculation from virtual ecliptic days-degrees in usual real physical days of year and consequently it is impossible to avoid leap-years.

Chinese traditional ecliptic day of the New Year (3150 in a plane ecliptic) precisely coincides with the beginning of the New Year on offered by the author Abrahamic to the Chinese calendar (on February, 7th) on Saturday on the basis of a universal matrix (the day 1st Risshun).

Abrahamic date of "7" February UM (Pisces=Рыбы) on real physical ecliptic is equal «305.20» that corresponds to date «4» February on the Gregorian calendar in leap year, and «5» (306.20) or «on "February, 6th"307.20» in usual year (on the average approximately on one degree ecliptic for one days). On the Chinese calendar «the New Year» annually is necessary or on «4» (in leap year), either on «5» or on «6» (in usual year) date of February on the Gregorian calendar.

Therefore the settlement point ecliptic «3150» in a reality is equal to three physical points in a range «305.20» - «307.20» depending on type of year (simple or leap). Differently "the ancient" Chinese calendar precisely coincides with the offered author «13»-month's Abrahamic a variant of an eternal universal calendar with the accuracy accepted in calendar systems equal ± 1 days.

Settlement transfer ecliptic categories in usual physical categories an essence following, and it yields very close results on a range in degrees (ranges are completely crossed).

Will calculation real physical duration as in days in leap year (3150 х 1.0167 = 320.260). It exceeds ecliptic duration on «5.26» days (320.26 - 315 = 5.26). [In usual year this calculation following: 315*1.0139=319.3785 and (319.3785 315 = 4.3785 days accordingly.]

Transfer of a 12-month's matrix in a 13-month's matrix gives a difference in February for «3» days as in January «31» day of a usual Gregorian calendar is had not, and «28» days Abrahamic a calendar (31 - 28 = 3). The general shift of a real point in relation to ecliptic to a point makes «8.26» days (5.26 + 3 = 8.26) or [4.3785+3=7.3785 days] according to a year. The settlement point on ecliptic makes in leap year «306.740» (3150-8.26=306.740) and in usual year «307.620» [3150-7.3785=307.62150].

Differently exact imposing of ranges of co-ordinates in arc degrees measurement (305.20-307.20) on the one hand, and [306.740-307.620] on the other hand, that is coincidence of real and settlement co-ordinates to the standard accuracy in calendars ±1 takes place days.

 

Scheme Traditional Holiday China:

Date

English name

Local name

Remarks

January 1

New Year

The first day of the new year

元旦

 

1st day of 1st lunar month

Spring Festival (Chinese New Year)

Holiday Double Units.

Spring Festival (Chinese new year)

Based on Chinese calendar

15th day of 1st lunar month

Lantern Festival

元宵

Based on Chinese calendar

2nd day of 2nd lunar month

Zhonghe Festival (Dragon Raising its Head)

Holiday Double Deuce.

Festival Dragon raises its head (the spring equinox)

中和

Based on Chinese calendar

March 8

International Women's Day

际妇女节

 

March 12

Arbor Day

树节

Also known as National Tree Planting Day (全民义务植树日)

5th Solar Term (usually April 4–6)

Qingming Festival (Chinese Memorial Day)

Day, or the day of Cleaning the graves of Ancestors

清明

Based on the JieqiQingming.

May 1

Labour Day

劳动节

International Workers' Day

May 4

Youth Day

May 4th movement

青年

Commemorating the May Fourth Movement

June 1

Children's Day

六一儿童

 

5th day of 5th lunar month

Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwujie)

Holiday Double Five

端午

Based on Chinese calendar

July 1

CPC Founding Day

The party was founded in July 1921 in Shanghai

建党

Formation of 1st National Congress on July, 1921

July 11

China National Maritime Day

中国航海日

The anniversary of Zheng He's first voyage

August 1

Army Day, (1927)

军节

Nanchang Uprising (南昌起) on August 1, 1927

7th day of 7th lunar month

Double Seven Festival

Holiday Double Seven

Chinese Valentine's Day

七夕

The Chinese Valentine's Day, based on Chinese calendar

15th day of 7th lunar month

Spirit Festival (Ghost Festival)

中元

Based on Chinese calendar

15th day of 8th lunar month

Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival)

中秋

Based on Chinese calendar

October 1

National Day

Foundation of the people's Republic of China (October 1, 1949)

庆节

Founding of PRC on October 1, 1949

9th day of 9th lunar month

Chongyang Festival

Double Ninth Festival

重阳

Based on Chinese calendar.

 

Now seven official celebratory dates in continental China are considered officially holiday only. Reform have spent in 2008, having cancelled Day of work Gold week and have added three traditional Chinese holidays (Tsinmin of festival, Duanwu festival, and the Holiday of the middle of autumn).

Remarkable feature of continental China of holidays is that the days off combine with everyday life to create longer period of a vacation. For example, rest on Friday is always declaring as a three-day holiday (Friday-Sunday). In China all seven days in a week work. The majority of sources in China count up total of the days off (including official state holidays).

 

Date

English name

Chinese name

Duration (2008 -)

Duration (2000-2007)

Date (2012)

1 January

New Year

元旦

3 days

1 day

Sat 1-Mon 3 Jan

1-st day

of the first lunar month

Chinese New Year

7 days

3 days

Sun 22-Thu 28 January

The Fifth solar term

(on April 4 or April 5)

Qingming Festival

清明

3 days

N / A

Mon 2-Wed 4 April

1 May

Labour Day

劳动节

3 days

3 days

Thu 29 April-1 May, Tue

5-th day of the 5-th month of the lunar calendar

Dragon Boat Festival

端午

3 days

N / A

Wed 23 June

15th day of 8th lunar month

Mid-Autumn Festival

中秋

3 days

N / A

THU 30 September

1 October

National Day

庆节

3 days

3 days

Thu 1-sat October 3

 

File:National Day decorations - Beihai Park.JPG

National day of China in 2004, park Bejhaj

 

HOLIDAYS OF ETHNIC MINORITY

There are holidays of some ethnic minority in some regions of their residing they dare local governments.

 

 

Date

English name

Local name

Chinese name

Ethnic groups

Comments

1-st day, Tibetan

Losar

ལོ་གསར

/ 新年

Tibetan

7 days in Tibet

30,6 from Tibetan calendar

ShoDun

༄༅།ཞོ་སྟོན།

顿节

Tibetan

1 day in Tibet

1,10 from Islamiccalendar

Idalj

Fitr

 

斋节 / 肉孜

Huej, ujgurt and other Muslims

2 days for all in Ninsya, 1 day for Muslims (only) in Xinjiang

10,12 fromIslamiccalendar

Idalj

Adha

 

尔邦

Huej, ujgurt and other Muslims

2 days for all in Ninsya; 3 days Muslims, 1 day for other in Xinjiang

 

NEW HOLIDAYS

Some Chinese young men have started to mark on November, 11th as day of acquaintance (as Singles' Day) the Chinese: 光棍; pinyin: Guang pistol Jie).

 

ADDITIONAL VACATION FOR CONCRETE SOCIAL GROUPS

In addition to these holidays applicable for all population exists four official state holidays applicable to concrete levels of population:

 

Date

English name

Chinese name

Duration

Applies to

8 March

International Women's Day

妇女节

part-time

Women

4 May

Youth Day

青年

part-time

Young people aged 14 to 28

1 June

Children's Day

儿童

1 day

Children up to 14 years

1 August

Army Day

军节

part-time

Armed forces emergency services

 

In all these holidays if holidays get for the weekend, these days are compensated by additional days of rest after days off.

The Chinese the New Year and the state holidays consist of three days. Week holiday for May (Avoda) and Day of a national holiday began to mark since 2000, as a measure on increase and encouragement of celebratory expenses. The received seven-day holiday is called "Gold week" (黄金周). It became a peak season for travel and tourism. In 2008 Day of work has been reduced about one day, but three traditional Chinese holidays have been added.

Citizens are obliged to work and study within all week. The enterprises, schools work daily. Hospitals, work daily to treat victims on Saturdays and Sundays, as well as at week-days.

The Chinese calendar is based on lunar months; therefore the beginning of each the New Year gets for various dates (but always to an interval between January, 20th and on February, 20th.

 

Year of the Gregorian calendar

Year on the Chinese calendar

Beginning of the Chinese year

Animal of the year

The element of the year

The color of the year

1900

4598

Jan 31

Rat (Mouse)

Metal

White (Golden)

1901

4599

Feb 19

Ox (bull)

(Cow)

Metal

White (Golden)

1902

4600

Feb 08

Tiger

Water

Black

1903

4601

Jan 29

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Water

Black

1904

4602

Feb 16

Dragon

Wood

Green

1905

4603

Feb 04

Snake

Wood

Green

1906

4604

Jan 25

Horse

Fire

Red

1907

4605

Feb 13

Goat

Fire

Red

1908

4606

Feb 02

Monkey

Ground

Brown

1909

4607

Jan 22

Cock

Ground

Brown

1910

4608

Feb 10

Dog

Metal

White (Golden)

1911

4609

Jan 30

Wild Boar (Pig)

Metal

White (Golden)

1912

4610

Feb 18

Rat (Mouse)

Water

Black

1913

4611

Feb 06

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Water

Black

1914

4612

Jan 26

Tiger

Wood

Green

1915

4613

Feb 14

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Wood

Green

1916

4614

Feb 03

Dragon

Fire

Red

1917

4615

Jan 23

Snake

Fire

Red

1918

4616

Feb 11

Horse

Ground 

Brown

1919

4617

Feb 01

Goat

Ground 

Brown

1920

4618

Feb 20

Monkey

Metal

White (Gold)

1921

4619

Feb 08

Cock

Metal

White (Gold)

1922

4620

Jan 28

Dog

Water

Black

1923

4621

Feb 16

Wild Boar (Pig)

Water

Black

1924

4622

Feb 05

Rat (Mouse)

Wood

Green

1925

4623

Jan 24

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Wood

Green

1926

4624

Feb 13

Tiger

Fire

Red

1927

4625

Feb 02

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Fire

Red

1928

4626

Jan  23

Dragon

Ground 

Brown

1929

4627

Feb 10

Snake

Ground 

Brown

1930

4628

Jan 30

Horse

Metal

White (Gold)

1931

4629

Feb 17

Goat

Metal

White (Gold)

1932

4630

Feb 06

Monkey

Water

Black

1933

4631

Jan 26

Cock

Water

Black

1934

4632

Feb 14

Dog

Wood

Green

1935

4633

Feb 04

Wild Boar (Pig)

Wood

Green

1936

4634

Jan  24

Rat (Mouse)

Fire

Red

1937

4635

Feb 11

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Fire

Red

1938

4636

Jan 31

Tiger

Ground 

Brown

1939

4637

Feb 19

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Ground 

Brown

1940

4638

Feb 08

Dragon

Metal

White (Gold)

1941

4639

Jan 27

Snake

Metal

White (Gold)

1942

4640

Feb 15

Horse

Water

Black

1943

4641

Feb 05

Goat

Water

Black

1944

4642

Jan 25

Monkey

Wood

Green

1945

4643

Feb 13

Cock

Wood

Green

1946

4644

Feb 02

Dog

Fire

Red

1947

4645

Jan 22

Wild Boar (Pig)

Fire

Red

1948

4646

Feb 10

Rat (Mouse)

Ground 

Brown

1949

4647

Jan  29

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Ground 

Brown

1950

4648

Feb 17

Tiger

Metal

White (Gold)

1951

4649

Feb 06

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Metal

White (Gold)

1952

4650

Jan  27

Dragon

Water

Black

1953

4651

Feb 14

Snake

Water

Black

1954

4652

Feb 03

Horse

Wood

Green

1955

4653

Jan  24

Goat

Wood

Green

1956

4654

Feb 12

Monkey

Fire

Red

1957

4655

Jan 31

Cock

Fire

Red

1958

4656

Feb 18

Dog

Ground 

Brown

1959

4657

Feb 08

Wild Boar (Pig)

Ground 

Brown

1960

4658

Jan  28

Rat (Mouse)

Metal

White (Gold)

1961

4659

Feb 15

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Metal

White (Gold)

1962

4660

Feb 05

Tiger

Water

Black

1963

4661

Jan 25

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Water

Black

1964

4662

Feb 13

Dragon

Wood

Green

1965

4663

Feb 02

Snake

Wood

Green

1966

4664

Jan 21

Horse

Fire

Red

1967

4665

Feb 09

Goat

Fire

Red

1968

4666

Jan 30

Monkey

Ground 

Brown

1969

4667

Feb 17

Петух

Ground 

Brown

1970

4668

Feb 06

Dog

Metal

White (Gold)

1971

4669

Jan 27

Wild Boar (Pig)

Metal

White (Gold)

1972

4670

Feb 15

Rat (Mouse)

Water

Black

1973

4671

Feb 03

Ox (Cow)

Water

Black

1974

4672

Jan 23

Tiger

Wood

Green

1975

4673

Feb 11

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Wood

Green

1976

4674

Jan 31

Dragon

Fire

Red

1977

4675

Feb 18

Snake

Fire

Red

1978

4676

Feb 07

Horse

Ground 

Brown

1979

4677

Jan 28

Goat

Ground 

Brown

1980

4678

Feb 16

Monkey

Metal

White (Gold)

1981

4679

Feb 05

Cock

Metal

White (Gold)

1982

4680

Jan 25

Dog

Water

Black

1983

4681

Feb 13

Wild Boar (Pig)

Water

Black

1984

4682

Feb 02

Rat (Mouse)

Wood

Green

1985

4683

Feb 20

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Wood

Green

1986

4684

Feb 09

Tiger

Fire

Red

1987

4685

Jan 29

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Fire

Red

1988

4686

Feb 17

Dragon

Ground 

Brown

1989

4687

Feb 06

Snake

Ground 

Brown

1990

4688

Jan  27

Horse

Metal

White (Gold)

1991

4689

Feb 15

Goat

Metal

White (Gold)

1992

4690

Feb 04

Monkey

Water

Black

1993

4691

Jan 23

Cock

Water

Black

1994

4692

Feb 10

Dog

Wood

Green

1995

4693

Jan  31

Wild Boar (Pig)

Wood

Green

1996

4694

Feb 19

Rat (Mouse)

Fire

Red

1997

4695

Feb 07

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Fire

Red

1998

4696

Jan 27

Tiger

Ground 

Brown

1999

4697

Feb 16

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Ground 

Brown

2000

4698

Feb 05

Dragon

Metal

White (Gold)

2001

4699

Jan 24

Snake

Metal

White (Gold)

2002

4700

Feb 12

Horse

Water

Black

2003

4701

Feb 01

Goat

Water

Black

2004

4702

Jan 22

Monkey

Wood

Green

2005

4703

Feb 09

Cock

Wood

Green

2006

4704

Jan 29

Dog

Fire

Red

2007

4705

Feb 18

Wild Boar (Pig)

Fire

Red

2008

4706

Feb 07

Rat (Mouse)

Ground 

Brown

2009

4707

Jan 26

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Ground 

Brown

2010

4708

Feb 10

Tiger

Metal

White (Golden)

2011

4709

Feb 03

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Metal

White (Golden)

2012

4710

Jan 23

Dragon

Water

Black

2013

4711

Feb 10

Snake

Water

Black

2014

4712

Jan 31

Horse

Wood

Green

2015

4713

Feb 19

Goat

Wood

Green

2016

4714

Feb 09

Monkey

Fire

Red

2017

4715

Jan 28

Cock

Fire

Red

2018

4716

Feb 16

Dog

Ground

Brown

2019

4717

Feb 05

Wild Boar (Pig)

Ground

Brown

2020

4718

Jan 25

Rat (Mouse)

Metal

White (Golden)

2021

4719

Feb 12

Bull (Cow)

Metal

White (Golden)

2022

4720

Feb 01

Tiger

Water

Black

2023

4721

Jan 22

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Water

Black

2024

4722

Feb 10

Dragon

Wood

Green

2025

4723

Jan  29

Snake

Wood

Green

2026

4724

Feb 17

Horse

Fire

Red

2027

4725

Feb 06

Goat

Fire

Red

2028

4726

Jan 26

Monkey

Ground 

Brown

2029

4727

Feb 13

Cock

Ground 

Brown

2030

4728

Feb 03

Dog

Metal

White (Gold)

2031

4729

Jan  23

Wild Boar (Pig)

Metal

White (Gold)

2032

4730

Feb 11

Rat (Mouse)

Water

Black

2033

4731

Jan 31

Ox (bull) (Cow)

Water

Black

2034

4732

Feb 19

Tiger

Wood

Green

2035

4733

Feb 08

Cat (Hare, Rabbit)

Wood

Green

2036

4734

Jan 28

Dragon

Fire

Red

2037

4735

Feb 15

Snake

Fire

Red

2038

4736

Feb 04

Horse

Ground 

Brown

2039

4737

Jan 24

Goat

Ground 

Brown

 

DAYS OF WEEK (GZA ", གཟའ) ARE NAMED IN HONOUR OF HEAVENLY BODIES

Day of Week

Tibetian (Wylie )

Fonetictranscription

Object

Sunday

གཟའ་ཉི་མ་ ( GZA "Nyi ma )

Sa-ma Nyi

Sun

Monday

གཟའ་ཟླ་བ་ ( GZA "ZLA ba )

Sa-da-va

Moon

Tuesday

གཟའ་མིག་དམར་ ( GZA "МиГ dmar )

Sa Mik-Mar

Mars

Wednesday

གཟའ་ལྷག་པ་ ( GZA "lhag)

Sa Lhak-ba

Mercury

Thursday

གཟའ་ཕུར་བུ། ( GZA "phur)

Sa Phur-bu

Jupiter

Friday

གཟའ་པ་སངས་ ( GZA 'annual Sangs )

Sa Va-san

Venus

Saturday

གཟའ་སྤེན་པ་ ( GZA "spenannual)

Sa Ben-ba

Saturn

 

Nima "Sun", Dava "Moon" and Lhagpa "Mercury" are the general personal names for the people who were born on Sunday, Monday or on Wednesday accordingly.

 

Our offer on transfer of an analogue 12-month's Chinese agricultural calendar in a uniform universal digital mathematical calendar consists in the following.

1). We add 13 month in "an agricultural" Chinese calendar under the name "Confucius" (the zodiac of "Serpentarius") [in square brackets numbers of a universal matrix] are specified:

 

Month

 Length day

 Gregorian

Tropical Zodiac

01 [II] February

28

February(28-29)

Pisces

02 [III] March

28

March (31)

Aries

03 [IV] April

28

April (30)

Taurus

04 [V] May

28

May (31)

Gemini

05 [VI] June

28

June (30)

Cancer

06 [VII] July

28

July (31)

Leo

07 [VIII] August

28

August (31)

Virgo

08 [IX] September

28

September (30)

Libra

09 [X] October

28

October (31)

Scorpio

10[XI] Confucius

28

 

Serpentarius

11 [XII] November

28

November (30)

Sagittarius

12 [XIII] December

29-30

December (31)

Capricorn

13 [I] January

28

January (31)

Aquarius

 

2). In the variant of a universal matrix offered by the author the number of semiintervals of holidays 24 Sekki on the Chinese calendar is increased with 24 to 26 (new semiintervals are added: "Mao" and " Deng" in honour of the chairman Mao and Deng) and all these semiintervals (26) are equal among themselves.

They contain for 14 days in everyone, except a semi (half) interval «Daikan», which will contain 16 days if to take leap-year. In usual year the semiinterval «Daikan» will contain 15 days. It is in detail stated in section of a calendar of Japan. In Japan Chinese system of semi intervals «24 Sekki» is very popular.