9. JAPANESE CALENDAR

List of Appendixes

 

Appendix 23. Japanese Abrahamic calendar 2012CE (leap)

Appendix 24. Japanese Abrahamic calendar. 2013CE

HISTORY

The lunno-solar Chinese calendar has been entered into Japan through Korea in the middle of the sixth century CE. After that, since 1685 Japan counted the calendars by means of various Chinese calendar procedures, using the Japanese variations of the Chinese calendars. But in 1873 in modernisation of Japan Meiji period has been entered solar a Gregorian calendar. Therefore today in Japan, the old Chinese calendar is practically ignored.

In Japan there were some calendar systems simultaneously, including: Chinese the six-ten years' cycle has been entered in the early middle Ages in Japan. It is often used together with a name of epoch Ise. Now, however, this cycle is used seldom.

About 701 years CE calendar names on Era-years of board of each concrete emperor (年号, nengō?). This system has been adopted from China.

Since 1873 is «the Japanese imperial years» (, Koki?) or kigen 纪元by date of the basis of Japan legendary Emperor Jimmu in 660 year B.C. For the first time this calendar has been used as an official calendar in 1873.

After the Second World War this imperial calendar system («the Japanese imperial years») has been cancelled and instead of it purely Western Era "A.D." (Anno Domini) (西暦, seireki ?}

 

OFFICIAL CALENDAR

The imperial calendar system was used since 1872 (Koki) to the Second World War. Imperial year «1» (Koki 1) was year when legendary Emperor Jimmuhas based Japan in 660 BCE on a Gregorian calendar. From the point of view of nationalism Koki underlines long history of Japan and an imperial family, because it more than number Anno Domini of year (AD).

Year Koki 2600 [two zero or «Zero»] was (1940) year especial. Summer Olympic games 1940 and Tokyo to an exhibition have been planned as event of century, but have been cancelled because of the Second Chinese-Japanese war. The well-known Japanese fighter aircrafts «Fighter Zero» has been named in honour of this year. After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan and Koki officials of Japan have forbidden use. Today, Koki it is used seldom, except for some judicial contexts of that epoch.

After Gregorian calendar acceptance in Japan three different systems of chronology actually were as equals used:

From the basis of Japan (Jap.皇紀 ko: ki?) - ancient calendar system, with a reference point 660 year BC when, according to a legend, Emperor Jimmu has based the Japanese state; this system of calculation of calendar time from the basis of Japan was used since 1873 and till the end of the Second World War.

From the beginning of board of the today's operating emperor of Japan (Jap.年号 nango: ?) - Years are estimated from a year of the beginning of board of the emperor, for example 2012 is 24 year Hejsej; A.D. (Our era) (Jap.西暦 seireki?)

From these three systems two last are actively used and today.

The modern Japanese calendar has in the basis a Catholic calendar of Vatican (Gregorian calendar) with refusal of its some elements unacceptable for two basic religions of Japan: the Buddhism and Shinto (Japanese Buddhism and Shinto).

In Japan do not define fixed day of the Spring equinox (on March, 21st) on a calendar. This day is very important for Japanese and it define exclusively only a real astronomical way of annual measurements to observatories. Date of this holiday declares with exclusivity the National Astronomical Observatory (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan).

The official calendar of Japan has no relation to Catholic and orthodox Easter (Easter) and is not focused on this major event both orthodox Greek creed, and Catholic Vatican which calendar Japan uses in own purposes. Therefore the official calendar of Japan ignores such astronomical phenomenon, as Epacta of the Moon (age of the Moon on the beginning of year).

In Japan completely ignore Judaic Shabbat (Sabbath), and Orthodox Resurrection. The motto of Japanese is their song favourite in imperial military fleet: «We have no neither Sundays, nor Saturdays»! - That means that «We work all the week long» (An old Japanese imperial navy song says "We have neither Sundays nor Saturdays!" which means "We work throughout the week.").

The system of leap years in the Japanese official calendar completely conforms to the rules a calendar of Catholic Vatican. Since 1876 January is declared officially first month of year. It runs counter to a calendar of China and all tradition in South East Asia where first month of year (and the New Year) traditionally it is considered month February: in China, on Taiwan, in Vietnam, in Korea and in Mongolia (China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Korea and Mongolia).

It is considered that official Japan has completely refused a traditional lunar Chinese calendar. In Japan never mark the New Year on February, 1st.

But this system often leads seasonal no time table. Modern Japanese culture has invented some kind of "compromise a calendar. This calendar which is called Tsuki-Окуре ("an one-monthly delay") or Chūreki ("Eclectic the Calendar"), considers February, as well as in the Chinese calendar, "first month of year".

Though it only de facto. But it is widely used at definition of date of many folklore events and religious holidays. Only actually Japanese the New Year is the big exception from this «compromise» a calendar. This holiday is never transferred neither officially, nor informally for February, 1st. It always marks only on January, 1st.

In modern Japanese language months have the name of ordinal numerals (the first, the second, the third etc.) [When the lunar calendar names of months were in the order of the Moon was used: the first Moon, the second Moon, the third Moon etc. to last twelfth Moon of year].

Month also shared for three 10 day periods (decade). Each of which was called дзюн (jap.). The first дзё: дзюн (jap.上旬), the second тю: дзюн (Jap.中旬), the third гэдзюн

(jap.下旬). These names are often used for instructions of approximate time, for example: «the temperature is usual for дзё: дзюн April».

 

TODAY OFFICIAL NAMES OF MONTHS OF JAPAN THE ESSENCE THE FOLLOWING:

 

I). January – 1-th month: mutsuki (睦月, "Month of Affection").

II). February (February) – 2-th month: kisaragi (如月) or kinusaragi (衣更着, "Changing Clothes")[i].

III). March (March) – 3-th month: yayoi(弥生, "New Life").

IV). April– 4-th month: uzuki (卯月, "u-no-hana month"). The u-no-hana (卯の花) is a flower, of the genus Deutzia.[ii].

V). May - -5-th month: satsuki (皐月) or sanaetsuki (早苗月? "Early-rice-planting Month").

VI). June – 6-th month: minatsuki(水無月, "Month of Water").

VII). July – 7-th month: fumizuki (文月, "Month of Books").

VIII). August – 8-th month: hazuki (葉月, "Month of Leaves").

IX). September – 9-th month: nagatsuki (長月, "The Long Month).

X). October – 10-th month: 神無月 (kaminazuki or kannazuki, "month of the gods ").

XI). November – 11-th month: shimotsuki(霜月, "Month of Frost").

XII). December – 12-th month: shiwasu (師走, "Priests Running").

 

Every day weeks of the Japanese calendar it is designated by simply Arabian figure, as well as all over the world, but still historically has an own (regular) name:

 

DAYS OF MONTH IN THE JAPANESE CALENDAR

1

一日

tsuitachi ("ippi")

17

十七日

jūshichinichi

2

二日

futsuka

18

十八日

jūhachinichi

3

三日

mikka

19

十九日

jūkunichi

4

四日

yokka

20

二十日

hatsuka

5

五日

itsuka

21

二十一日

nijūichinichi

6

六日

muika

22

二十二日

nijūninichi

7

七日

nanoka

23

二十三日

nijūsannichi

8

八日

yōka

24

二十四日

nijūyokka

9

九日

kokonoka

25

二十五日

nijūgonichi

10

十日

tōka

26

二十六日

nijūrokunichi

11

十一日

jūichinichi

27

二十七日

nijūshichinichi

12

十二日

jūninichi

28

二十八日

nijūhachinichi

13

十三日

jūsannichi

29

二十九日

nijūkunichi

14

十四日

jūyokka

30

三十日

sanjūnichi

15

十五日

jūgonichi

31

三十一日

sanjūichinichi

16

十六日

jūrokunichi

 

 

Use Arabian, instead of the Japanese figures for a designation of days (13, 14and Etc.) widespread also is practically norm.

«Tsujtati» - it is the diminutive form from «Tsukikati» that means the first day of month. In a traditional calendar last day is called month «Misoka» (Jap.晦日?). Today numbers 28-31 thread plus «Niti» meet much more often.

But «Misoka» it is often used, for example in contracts, contracts and. Etc. Defining that that payment should be made last day month, it is unimportant what number. Last day year it: «Misoka» (Jap.大晦日?,the big last day), and this term is still widely used.

Tsuitachi is the reduced form tsuki-tati that means "the beginning of month". Last day month was called tsugomori that the Moon hidden "means". This classical word occurs from tradition of a lunno-solar calendar. 30th day of month also named misoka as 20th day is called hatsuka.

Now, conditions for numbers plus 28-31 Nichi meet much more often. Nevertheless, misoka are much more used in contracts etc., having specified that payment should be made not later than last day month, irrespective of number. Last day year 大晦日Omisoka («the big 30th day"), and this term is used till now.

There is a traditional opinion that there are some days of luck (kichijitsu) or bad luck. For example, there are some people who will avoid to begin something in an unlucky day.

 

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS OF JAPAN

Under the Secular Constitution of Japan, Article 20, accepted after the Second World War, all national not secular holidays have been completely cancelled and replaced with the secular.

Names of many new holidays have the primary source medieval ideology of Sinto, the Buddhism and some important events of an imperial family. Therefore not easily happens today to understand originally put sense of the name of a holiday under its indistinct external official name.

Notes: separate days between two national holidays too are perceived as a holiday. It concerns May, 4th which therefore is a holiday every year and is stable «bank of holidays». When the national holiday "floating", and it drops out on Sunday this day rest is compensated in the next afternoon (usually Monday).

Day of a holiday demands from citizens of its celebrating to destination a holiday (it is a civic duty) and consequently is equated by the working day, and rest is transferred the next day weeks.

 

Date

English name

Official name

Romanization

January 1

New Year's Day

The first day of the New Year

元日

Ganjitsu

2nd Monday of January

Coming of Age Day

Day coming of age

成人の日

Seijin no hi

February 11

National Foundation Day

建国記念の日

Kenkoku kinen no hi

March 20 or March 21

Vernal Equinox Day

春分の日

Shunbun no hi

April 29

Shōwa Day *

The Emperor's birthday

Shōwa - Hirihito

昭和の日

Shōwa no hi

May 3

Constitution Memorial Day *

憲法記念日

Kenpō kinenbi

May 4

Greenery Day *

みどり()の日

Midori no hi

May 5

Children's Day *

子供の日

Kodomo no hi

3rd Monday of July

Marine Day

海の日

Umi no hi

3rd Monday of September

Respect for the Aged Day

敬老の日

Keirō no hi

September 23 or September 24

Autumnal Equinox Day

秋分の日

Shūbun no hi

2nd Monday of October

Health-Sports Day

体育の日

Taiiku no hi

November 3

Culture Day

文化の日

Bunka no hi

November 23

Labour Thanksgiving Day

勤労感謝の日

Kinrō kansha no hi

December 23

The Emperor's Birthday

天皇誕生日

Tennō tanjōbi

Traditional legendary date according to which Emperor Jimmu has based the state Japan in 660 BCE.

 * GoldWeek.


 

File:Koinobori4797.jpg

«Koinbory», flags are decorated, as which, ornaments around Day of protection of children are popular.

 

SEASONS

English name

Japanese name

Romanization

The traditional date of

Spring

Haru

4 February - 5 May

Summer

Natsu

6 May - 7 August

Autumn

Aku

8 August - 6 November

Winter

Fuyu

7 November - 3 February


 

File:ShinOchaEkiMuralHachigatsu8540.jpg

Japan. This fresco on wall Shin-Ochanomizu in Tokyo celebrates the station underground Hazuki, on the eighth month

 

IN THE JAPANESE USE THERE ARE 24 SEASONAL DAYS FROM THE CHINESE CALENDAR

 Some days have special names to note change of seasons. 24 Sekki (二十四节気, Nijūshi Sekki?) (Jieqi) days which divide solar year into twenty four equal parts. Their names have been generated on the basis of studying of a climate of Northern China and consequently many names are not entered in atmosphere of the Japanese archipelago. But some of these names, such as Shunbun, Risshū and «Todzi», are still used often enough in an everyday life in Japan.

Year is broken into 24 intervals. Three intervals for 14 days in usual year (42 days). Thirteen intervals for 15 days (195 days). Eight intervals for 16 days (128 days). Total in usual year of 365 days (42+195+128 = 365 days).

In leap year is available two intervals for 14 days (28 days). Fourteen intervals for 15 days (210 days). Eight intervals for 16 days (128 days). Total in leap year 366 days (28+210+128=366 days) contain.

 

WEEKS

Japanese use the usual seven-day week corresponding to the western calendar. Seven-day week in Japan was used for astrological and some other purposes even before Gregorian calendar acceptance.

Fukudzava Jukiti was a key figure in the decision to accept this system as the official. Names of days of week occur from the moon and the sun (Yin and Jan), and also from names of five visible planets which, in turn, are named in honour of five Chinese elements (a tree, fire, the earth, metal, water).

 

Japanese

Cyrillic

Element

The day of the name

日曜日

nitiyo: bi

Sun

Sunday

月曜日

getsuyo: bi

Moon

Monday

火曜日

kayo: bi

Fire (Mars)

Tuesday

水曜日

sujyo: bi

Water (Mercury)

Wednesday

木曜日

mokuyo: bi

Wood (Jupiter)

Thursday

金曜日

kinjyo: bi

Metal (Venus)

Friday

土曜日

doyo: bi

Ground (Saturn)

Saturday

 

Our offer on transfer of an analogue 12-month's Japanese calendar in a uniform universal digital mathematical calendar consists in the following.

We add 13 month in a traditional Japanese calendar under the name "Confucius" (the zodiac of "Serpentarius") [numbers of a universal matrix and number of months of year in the Japanese and Catholic calendars coincide both under number and in a place in a calendar, the zodiac and a universal matrix]:

 

I). (January) – 1st month: mutsuki (睦月, "Month of Affection"). Aquarius, January [28 days].

II). (February) – 2nd month: kisaragi (如月) or kinusaragi (衣更着, "Changing Clothes")[iii] Pisces, March [28 days].

III). (March) – 3rd month: yayoi(弥生, "New Life Aries, March [28 days].

IV). (April) – 4th month: uzuki (卯月, "u-no-hana month"). The u-no-hana (卯の花) is a flower, of the genus Deutzia.[iv] Taurus, April [28 days].

V). (May) - -5th month: satsuki (皐月) or sanaetsuki (早苗月? "Early-rice-planting Month") Gemini, May [28 days].

VI). (June) – 6th month: minatsuki(水無月, "Month of Water") Cancer, June [28 days]. 

VII). (July) – 7th month: fumizuki (文月, "Month of Books") Leo, July [28 days].

VIII). (August) – 8th month: hazuki (葉月, "Month of Leaves")  Virgo, August [28 days].

IX). (September) – 9th month: nagatsuki (長月, "The Long Month") Libra, September [28 days].

X). (October) – 10th month: 神無月 (kaminazuki or kannazuki, "month of the gods ") Scorpio, October [28 days].

XI). Confucius , 11th month: Serpentarius, [28 days].

XII). (November) – 12th month: shimotsuki(霜月, "Month of Frost") Sagittarius, November [28 days].

XIII). (December) – 13th month: shiwasu (師走, "Priests Running") Capricorn, December [29-30 days].