О, сколько нам Открытий чудных

Готовит Просвещенья Дух,

И Опыт – сын ошибок трудных,

И Гений – парадоксов друг,

И Случай – Бог-изобретатель.

[А.С. Пушкн]

{About, how many to us of Discoveries wonderful

Prepares Knowledge Spirit,

And Experience - the son of errors difficult,

And the Genius - paradoxes the friend,

And the Case - God-inventor.



Открылась бездна звезд полна;

Звездам числа нет, бездне дна.

{The chasm (abyss) has opened is full of stars;

The number of stars is it impossible to count

A chasm has no bottom}


[Из стихотворения «Вечернее размышление о Божием величестве при случае великого северного сияния» (1743)

МихаилаВасильевичаЛомоносова (1711-1765)]

{From a poem «Evening meditation about God's majesty in the case of the great polar lights» (1743)

Michael Vasilevich Lomonosov (1711-1765)}


Chapter 1





The Sun (astronomically ) – is a unique star of Solar system. Round the Sun other objects of this system address: planets and their satellites, dwarfish planets and their satellites, asteroids, meteorites, comets and a space dust. The weight of the Sun makes 99,866 % from total weight of the entire Solar system.

The sunlight supports a life on the Earth (light is necessary for initial stages of photosynthesis), defines a climate. The sun consists of hydrogen (~73 % from weight and ~92 % from volume), helium (~25 % from weight and ~7 % from volume) and other elements with smaller concentration: iron, nickel, oxygen, nitrogen, silicon, sulphur, magnesium, carbon, a neon, calcium and chrome.

On 1 million atoms of hydrogen are necessary 98 000 atoms of helium, 851 atom of oxygen, 398 atoms of carbon, 123 atoms of a neon, 100 atoms of nitrogen, 47 atoms of iron, 38 atoms of magnesium, 35 atoms of silicon, 16 atoms of sulphur, 4 atoms of argon, 3 atoms of aluminium, on 2 atoms of nickel, sodium and calcium, and also very few all other elements. The average density of the Sun makes 1.4 g/sm ³.

On the spectral classification the Sun concerns type G2V («the yellow dwarf»). The temperature of a surface of the Sun reaches 6000 K. Therefore the Sun shines almost white light, but direct light of the Sun at a surface of our planet gets some yellow shade because of stronger dispersion and absorption of a short-wave part of a spectrum by atmosphere of the Earth (at the clear sky, together with a blue diffused light from the sky, a sunlight again gives white illumination).

The solar spectrum contains lines of the ionized and neutral metals, and also the ionized hydrogen. In ours galaxy the Milky Way is over 100 billion stars. Thus 85 % of stars of our galaxy are stars, less bright, than the Sun (in the majority red dwarfs). As well as all stars of the main sequence, the Sun develops energy by thermonuclear synthesis. In case of the Sun the overwhelming part of energy is developed at synthesis of helium from hydrogen.

Remoteness of the Sun from the Earth, 149 million 600 thousand kilometers, is approximately equal to astronomical unit, and visible angular diameter at supervision from the Earth, as well as at the Moon, - hardly there is more than half-degree (31-32 minutes). The sun is on distance about 26 000 light years from the centre of the Milky Way and rotates round it, doing one turn more than for 200 million years.

Orbital speed of the Sun is equal 217 km/s - thus, it passes one light year for 1400 terrestrial years, and one astronomical unit - for 8 terrestrial days. Now the Sun is in internal edge of a sleeve of Orion of our Galaxy, between a sleeve of Persey and a sleeve of the Sagittarius, in so-called «the Local interstellar cloud» - areas of the raised density located, in turn, in having smaller density «the Local bubble» - a zone disseminated highly temperature interstellar gas.

From the stars belonging to 50 most close star systems within 17 light years, known now, the Sun is the fourth star on brightness (its absolute star size +4,83m).

Sun radiation – is the basic natural energy source on the Earth. Its capacity is characterized by a solar constant - quantity of the energy passing through a platform of the individual area, perpendicular to solar beams. On distance in one astronomical unit (that is in an orbit of the Earth) this constant is equal approximately 1.37 kw/m ².

Passing through atmosphere of the Earth, the sunlight loses in energy about 370 VT/m ², and the terrestrial surface is reached only by 1000 VT/m ² (at a fair weather and when the Sun is in zenith). This energy can be used in various natural and artificial processes. So, plants, using it by means of photosynthesis, synthesize organic connections with oxygen allocation.

In green leaves of plants the green pigment chlorophyll contains. This pigment serves as a catcher of light energy in the course of photosynthesis - a difficult cycle of reactions of synthesis of organic substances from carbonic gas and water with use of energy of light. One of photosynthesis products is oxygen. Thus, photosynthesis provides possibility of existence of a life on the Earth. Animals exist for the account of eating of plants which accumulate energy of the Sun in the form of energy of chemical compounds, and breath by oxygen allocated with them.

The terrestrial surface and the bottom layers of air - troposphere where winds and clouds are formed and arise other meteorological phenomena, directly receive energy from the Sun.

Direct heating by solar beams or transformation of energy by means of photo cells can be used for manufacture of the electric power (solar power stations) or performance of other useful work. By photosynthesis the energy reserved in oil and other kinds of fossil fuel has been far back in the past received also.

The Earth passes through a point aphelion in the beginning of the July, removed from the Sun on distance of 152 million in km and through a point perihelion - in the beginning of January and comes nearer to the Sun on distance of 147 million in km. Visible diameter of the Sun between these two dates varies on 3%. As the difference in distance makes about 5 million in km in aphelion the Earth receives approximately on 7% less than heat. Thus, winters in northern hemisphere [in perihelion] are a bit warmer, than in southern [in aphelion], and the summer is a bit more cool.

The Sun is a magnetically active star. It possesses the strong magnetic field which intensity varies in due course and which changes a direction approximately each 11 years, during a solar maximum. Variations of a magnetic field of the Sun cause the various effects which set is called as solar activity and includes such phenomena, as solar stains, solar flashes, variations of a solar wind etc., and on the Earth causes polar lights in high and average widths.

The sun was generated approximately 4.59 billion years back when fast compression under the influence of forces of gravitation of a cloud of molecular hydrogen has led to formation in our area of the Galaxy of a star of the first type (the star population of type T- Taurus).

Star of such weight as the Sun, should exist on the main sequence in total approximately 10 billion years. Thus, now the Sun is approximately in the middle of the life cycle. At the present stage in a solar kernel there are thermonuclear reactions of transformation of hydrogen to helium. Every second in a kernel of the Sun about 4 million tons of substance turns to the radiant energy which quantity is calculated under A. Einstein's formula [E = MC2] therefore the sunlight and a stream solar neutrino is generated.

As the Sun gradually spends stocks of the hydrogen fuel, it all becomes hot, and its luminosity slowly, but steadily increases.

Later 1.1 billion from the presentour sun will be brighter than yearson 11% than now. The increase in luminosity of the Sun during this period is that that the surface of the Earth will be too hot that on it there could be no a life in its modern understanding. Despite it the life can remain at oceans and Polar Regions.

According to the professor of Pennsylvania university of J. Casting, disappearance of a life because of the rise in temperature, the caused increase in brightness of the Sun, probably even earlier, without reaching still a stage of the red giant, through 1 billion years.

Through 3.5 billion years brightness of the Sun will increase on 40%.By then conditions on the Earth will be similar to conditions on Venus today: water from a planet surface will disappear completely and will disappear in space. This accident will lead to definitive destruction of all forms of a life on the Earth. As hydrogen fuel in a solar kernel will burn out its external cover will extend, and the kernel - to be compressed and heat up.

Later 7-7.05 billion (from the present) the Sun becomes a subgiant. On this phase, according to one of models, the Sun will increase in diameter in with 1.6 to 2.3 R and its temperature will fall with 5500 K to 4900 K.

Approximately through 7.6-7.8 billion years theSun kernel will be warmed up so that will start process of burning of hydrogen in a cover surrounding it. It will cause rough expansion of external covers of a star, and thus the Sun becomes the red giant.

In this phase the Sun radius will increase in 256 times in comparison with the modern. Star expansion will lead to strong increase in its luminosity: in 2714 times; and to cooling of a surface to 2650 K.

Possible extending external layers of the Sun at this time will reach a modern orbit of the Earth. Thus researches show that else up until that time loss by the Sun more than 28 % of its weight will lead to that the Earth will pass to orbit farther from the Sun and, thus, probably, will avoid absorption by external layers of solar plasma.

Though researches of 2008 show that the Earth most likely all the same will be absorbed by the Sun owing to tidal interactions with its external cover. But even if our planet will casually avoid absorption by the Sun all water on it will pass in a gaseous state, and its atmosphere will be broken by the strongest solar wind.

The given phase of existence of the Sun will last about ten millions years. When the temperature in a kernel will reach 100 million K, there will be helium a flash, and thermonuclear reaction of synthesis of carbon and oxygen from helium will begin. The sun which has received a new energy source will decrease at the rate to 9.5 R . After 100-110 million years when helium stocks will run low, rough expansion of external covers of a star will repeat, and it again becomes the red giant.

This period of existence of the Sun will be accompanied by powerful flashes; times its luminosity will exceed modern level in 5200 times. It will occur that thermonuclear reaction will be entered by the earlier not mentioned rests of helium. In such condition the Sun will exist about 20 million years.

The weight of the Sun is insufficient that its evolution has come to the end with explosion of the supernew. After the sun will pass a phase of the red giant, thermal pulsations will lead to that its external cover will be broken, and the planetary fog is formed of it.

In the centre of this fog there will be generated of the Sun kernel a white dwarf, very hot and dense object, but the size only about the Earth. This white dwarf will initially have temperature of a surface 120 000 K and luminosity 3500 solar, but during many millions and billions years will cool down and die away. The given life cycle is considered small for stars small and average weights.[i]

Thus, later 1.1 billion years, since the present, the Life on the Earth will stop in its modern understanding. Through 3.5 billion years of a condition on the Earth will be similar to conditions on Venus today: water from a planet surface will disappear completely and will disappear in space. This accident will lead to definitive destruction of all forms of a life on the Earth.

Approximately through 7.6-7.8 billion years our Earth, most likely, will be absorbed by the Sun owing to tidal interactions with its external cover. The Earth absorbed by the Sun, will stop the independent physical existence, as object and the subject of Space, as «the Reason Cradle». But even if our planet somehow will avoid absorption by the Sun all water on it all the same will pass in a gaseous state, and its atmosphere will be broken by the strongest solar wind.

Therefore the Mankind is historically doomed to leave the Earth in search of the new Sun not later than through 1 bln years [actually, probably, much earlier: not later than 500 million years]. The main purpose of the Civilization thereupon consists in providing the decision of this most important task of survival of the Mankind.In it the reason of necessity of active collective efforts of all population of the Earth in development of piloted Astronautics consists. The Mankind does not have choice in this question. The piloted astronautics will allow Mankind to reach and master in due course new solar systems of "doubles" of our Sun.

Offered by us «New uniform for the Earth and Space the Mankind calendar» easily solves all calendar problems of our Human Civilization for all term of its stay in solar system. After 1.1 bln years the Sun becomes "old", absolutely unsuitable for residing of people and the Mankind will leave forcedly forever limits of dying Solar system. The mankind is to move to any new young Sun of our Galaxy to "Milky Way".

«The best part of mankind, most likely, never will be lost, but will move from the sun to the sun in process of them fading. Through many decillions years we will live, maybe, at the sun, which else now has not flared up, and exists only in a rudiment», - K.E. Tsiolkovsky in 1911 wrote.

Now some "doubles" of the Sun who are almost full analogues of our star on weight, luminosity, temperature (±50), metallicity (±12 %), to age (±1 bln years) etc. It is opened: Beta Hounds of Dogs, 18 Scorpions, 37 Twins, HD 44594, and HIP 56948.

However flights to stars-doubles of our Sun are a business concerning the far future. For these travel it is necessary to create still spaceships with close light in the speeds of movement to which will be transformed, probably, some small satellites of major planets, asteroids from a belt of asteroids and some minor planets. Problems of today are about intensive rough development of the most solar system. Colonization of the Moon, Mars and satellite system of Jupiter [Moons of Jupiter] (all 67 satellites are known for today) is a question of creation of a new Perfect [Ideal] Civilization in Space. The following concrete the first, suitable for settling, 65 satellites of Solar system means[ii]:


Indiametermore: 4000 km


2000—4000 km


1000—2000 km

Titania • Rhea • Oberon • Iapetus • Charon • Ariel • Umbriel • Dione • Tethys

500—1000 km


250—500 km

Miranda • Proteus • Mimas • Nereid • Hi'iaka • Hyperion • Actaea • Dysnomia, Vanth

100—250 km

Phoebe • Larissa • Janus • Galatea • Namaka • Amalthea • Puck • Sycorax • Portia • Ceto • Teharonhiawako • Epimetheus, Himalia

50—100 km

Thebe • Juliet • Nix • Prometheus • Elara • S/2000 (90) 1 • Thalassa • Pandora • Belinda• Cressida

• Hydra • Rosalind • Caliban • Naiad • Desdemona • Halimede • Pasiphae • Neso • Bianca • Weywot • Prospero, Caliban, Neso, Halimede, Zoe


Since 1610 for 2013 the Mankind in Solar system knows 190 satellites and minor planets (5). Number of purely planetary satellites - 181 [+3 new numbers], total: 184. At the Earth - 1. At the Mars - 2. At the Jupiter - 67. At the Saturn - 62 [+3 new number, S/2004 S6, S/2004 S4, S/2004 S3], total: 65. At the Uranium - 27. At the Neptune - 14. At the Pluton - 5. At the Haumea-2. At the Eridy-1.

From them 30 yet have no proper names [17 belong to Jupiter, 12 - to Saturn, 1 - to the Neptune]. They have only registration numbers. For high-grade residing from 190 are suitable no more than 50-70, including 5 small [dwarfish] planets.

The others, including all belt of asteroids, are useful only as "minerals", and also, as a basis-preparation, to creation of the space planet-ships (planets-KK).

Except for the Moon, Mars and its two satellites of a Phobos and of Deimos, and Ceres all other satellites and minor planets are behind a belt of asteroids, since the most numerous satellite system of Jupiter (67 satellites).

It are a large satellites not much (little). Among them 17 are most known: Ganymede, Titan, Callisto, Io, Moon, Europa, Triton, Titania, Rhea, Oberon, Iapetus, Charon, Umbriel, Ariel, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus.

The greatest on diameter [3.280 miles * 1.6 ~ 5248 km] the satellite of Solar system are Ganymede, the satellite of Jupiter. It more than diameters of planets: Mercury [4865 km] and Pluto [2390 km]. Second-large diameter [3.200 miles * 1.6 ~ 5120 km] are the Titan, the satellite of Saturn. It also more diameter Mercury and Pluto. The Moon, the satellite of the Earth, has diameter [2.160 miles * 1.6 ~ 3456 km]. Diameter of the Moon too is more than diameter of a planet of Pluto.

The common weight of all asteroids of the main belt is estimated in 3.0-3.6·1021 kg that makes all about 4% from weight of the Moon. Weight of Ceres - 9,5·1020 kg, that is about 32% from the general, and together with three largest asteroids of Vesta (9%), a Pallas (7%), Hygiea (3%) - 51%, that is overwhelming majority of asteroids have insignificant weight to astronomical measures that does convenient their use in the industrial purposes as raw materials (ore of metals).

Belt Kuiper is area of Solar system from an orbit of the Neptune (30 a.u. [astronomical units] from the Sun) to distance nearby 55 a.u. from the Sun. Though the belt of Kuiper is very similar to a belt of asteroids, but it approximately in 20 times is wider and in 20-200 times weight than the last.

As well as the belt of asteroids, it consists basically of small bodies that are the material which has remained after formation of Solar system. Unlike objects of a belt of asteroids which basically consist of rocks and metals, objects of a belt of Kuiper (оBK) consist mainly of flying substances (named ices), such as methane, ammonia and water.

In this area of space there are at least three dwarfish planets: Pluto, Haumea and Makemake. Besides, it is considered that some satellites of planets of Solar system, such as the satellite of the Neptune - the Triton and the satellite of Saturn - Phoebe, also have arisen in this area. Since in 1992 the belt has been discovered, the number known оBК has exceeded one thousand. The belt of asteroids and Belt of Kuiper will be inexhaustible sources of "minerals" for the future perfect space mankind in sizes absolutely non-comparable with terrestrial. The space industry will be the fantastic (cyclopean) sizes and galactic possibilities.

«The perfect mankind will be settled on other planets and is artificial to the created objects of Solar system. Thus on different planets will be generated the beings adapted for corresponding environment. The type of an organism which is not requiring atmosphere and «eating directly a solar energy» will be dominating.

Then moving will proceed and for limits of Solar system. Just as perfect people, are settled on the Universe and representatives of other worlds, thus «reproduction goes to millions times faster, than on the Earth. However, it is regulated by will: the perfect population - it imposes quickly and in any number» is necessary. Planets unite in the unions and as the whole solar systems, and then their associations etc. will unite.

«The mankind does not remain eternally on the Earth, but in a pursuit of light and space, at first will shy get for atmosphere limits, and then will win to itself all circumsolar space. The Earth - the Reason cradle, but it is impossible to live eternally in the Cradle». (Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky). «Per Aspera ad Astra!» (Through thorns to Stars!) [There is Winged Latin expression.]

It will be huge "underground" cities with the new independent life-support systems ecologically made completely.



Any chronological scale has a reference point to some its historical reliability. Key event of history of modern Mankind is "Passover" (or "Pesah”) that is exodus Jews from Egypt.

Logic of our reasonings is the following. The first Judaic Temple in Jerusalem was constructed by King Solomon who corrected in the period with 970 on 930 BCE. King Solomon has started building of the Temple on 4 year of the reign, that is in 966 BCE (970 BCE - 4 = 966 BCE). At the same time this event has occurred in 480 years after the Exodus of Jews from Egypt (3Kingdoms 6:1). Hence, the Exodus of Jews from Egypt took place in 1446 BCE (966 BCE + 480 = 1446 BCE) and this date it is possible to consider authentically as year of the Exodus of Jews from Egypt with accuracy ± 5 years. In Egypt Jews have lived no more than 430 years (Exodus 12:40), that is they have arrived to Egypt not earlier than 1876 BCE (1446 BCE + 430 years = 1876 BCE) at Pharaoh Senusrete III [Khakaure Senusret III (Sesostris III), 1878-1860 BCE, most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs, Twelfth Dynasty].

This calculation will well be coordinated with all historical events if to accept that the First Biblical (Mesopotamic or Noah's) the flood has begun on August, 13th 3113 BCE. It is from the date of this significant event of Maya, possibly, have begun time readout on the calendar. The calendar of Maya has extremely well preserved, thanks to that it is cut out from a stone.

Isaac was born, when Abraham was 100 years old (Genesis 21:5), Jacob was born, when Isaac was 60 years Genesis 25:26), Joseph was born, when Jacob was 91 year old (Genesis 41:46, 47; 45:6, 9, 10; 47:9). Further, Joseph has achieved a high post in Egypt when he was 30 years old (Genesis 41:41), and Jacob has moved to Egypt with the family when his son was 39 years old (Genesis 47:9).

In 2033 BCE (in 1080 after Noah's of the Flood) Abraham was born (3113 BCE - 1080 = 2033 BCE). In 1933 BCE Isaak (in 100 years after Abraham) was born. In 1873 BCE (in 60 years after Isaak) Jacob (that is “Israel”) was born. In 1782 BCE Joseph Beautiful (in 91 years after Jacob and 151 years after Isaak) was born. In 1518 BCE (in 515 years after Abraham) Moses was born (2033 BCE - 515 years = 1518 BCE). He was born in Avaris, capital of the Lower Egypt.

During the Middle Kingdom when Egypt ruled "weak" XII and XIII dynasties, numerous Asian tribes passed through isthmus of Suez and were free settled in fertile delta of Nile (in Lower, that is in Northern Egypt), convenient for trade and navigation in Mediterranean sea.

Small then the group of Jews was among these immigrants together with a numerous aggressive tribe Hyksos which has tamed by then horses and possessed huge herds which, including, Jews-shepherds grazed.

The shock part of army Hyksos consisted of fighting chariots. Many Egyptians at all had no skills of the reference with horses and for the first time in the life have seen these animals in the field of fight. Fighting chariots of Hyksos have resulted an army of Egyptians in a panic. Egyptians have lost all battles and have got to vassal dependence from Hyksos for the whole 361 year (1805-1544 BCE) From Pharaoh Yakbim Sekhaenre, 1805-1780 BCE, to Pharaoh Khamudi, 1555-1544 BCE. In total there were 23 Pharaohs-Hyksos: of 17 Pharaohs of XIV Dynasty [1805 - 1677 BCE] and 5 Pharaohs of XV Dynasty [1677 – 1544 BCE] (17 + 5 = 23).

Hyksos in delta of Nile (in the Lower Egypt) steels the prevailing population. They have made the capital a fortress of Avaris where their Egyptian dynasties (XIV and XV) of Pharaohs began to rule.

It is clear that Jew Joseph Beautiful (or Fine or Wonderful or Handsome) son of the biblical forefather Jacob by Rachel sold by brothers in slavery Hyksos, has made the breath-taking career at the fourth Pharaoh-Hygsose Ammu Ahotepre (1760–1745 BCE) [Fourteenth Dynasty] in the Lower Egypt.

[Joseph (son of Jacob), Joseph (Hebrew: יוֹסֵף‎, Yosef, Yôsēp̄, Arab. يوسف‎, Yusuf; «Yahweh will add»)Joseph, son of Israel (Jacob) and Rachel, lived in the land of Canaan with ten half-brothers, one full brother and one half-sister. He was Rachel's firstborn and Israel's eleventh son. Of all the sons, Joseph was loved by his father the most. Joseph was sold hisJoseph's half-brothers to serve Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard.]

[The Book of Genesis tells that Joseph was the 11th of Jacob's 12 sons and Rachel's firstborn, and tells how Joseph came to be sold into slavery by his jealous brothers, and rose to become the second most powerful man in Egypt next to Pharaoh. (Genesis 37:12-35)]

Joseph Beautiful was 30 years in 1752 BCE, when he met Pharaoh Ammu Ahotepreand he invited him to become his assistant and co-regent [(Genesis, 41:46) и (Genesis, 41:37-45)]. He was then renamed Zaphnath-Paaneah and was given Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah who was the priest of On.

Wife Asenath bore two children to Joseph: Manasseh and Ephraim. (Genesis 41:50-52). Joseph Beautiful lived 110 years and died in 1672 BCE.

The family of Jacob (Israel), the Jews, settled in Egypt during the life of Joseph the Beautiful in Egypt as Vizier to Pharaoh (Vizier of Egypt) in 1743 BCE. All relatives has born from Jacob were seventy, and Joseph was already in Egypt.

Joseph transferred its entire genus, with the elderly father Jacob led, in Egypt, where Pharaoh took them to the District of Goshen [province of Goshen] (Genesis 46:34, 47:27).

Thus, actually Jew (unlike other groups of Semites which concerned all Hyksos) have really lived in Egypt till the Exodus no more than 297 years (1743 BCE - 1446 BCE = 297 years).

The top level in 430 years and in 400 years, given in a Torah-Bible has estimated character and concerns, obviously, all groups of Semites, including Hyksos, unlike exact date of the Exodus of Jew from Egypt in 1446 BCE, concerning actually only to Jews.

[Then he commanded them to go and bring their father and his entire household into Egypt to live in the province of Goshen, because there were five more years of famine left. So Joseph supplied them Egyptian transport wagons, new garments, silver money, and twenty additional donkeys carrying provisions for the journey (Genesis 45:1-28)]

Close in my point of view results [Ronald Eldon Wyatt - Ron Wyatt and Lennart Möller][1] «The family of Jacob in number of 70 persons has arrived to Egypt approximately in 1706 BCE (Genesis 46:27, Deuteronomy 10:22). Between date of their settlement and the Exodus of the Jewish people (1446 BCE) – has passed only 260 years».


Леннарт Мёллер, автор книги                                          http://nbad.narod.ru/tn/war/Tn_011.jpg 

Lennart Möller                                             Ronald Eldon Wyatt - Ron Wyatt

Doctor of Medicine, Professor                        (1933 – 1999) the anesthesiologist


[Pharaoh acknowledged that Joseph's proposal to store grain during the abundant period was very wise. Pharaoh then released him from prison and put him in charge over "all the land of Egypt" as Vizier. The Pharaoh took off his signet ring and put it on Joseph's hand, then clothed him in fine linen and put a gold necklace around his neck. He was then renamed Zaphnath-Paaneah and was given Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah who was the priest of On, to be his wife. At the age of 30, Joseph was the most powerful man in Egypt, next to Pharaoh. During the seven years of abundance, Joseph ensured that the storehouses were full and that all produce was weighed until there was so much that it became immeasurable. In the sixth year, Asenath bore two children to Joseph: Manasseh and Ephraim.

When the famine came, it was so severe that people from surrounding nations "from all over the earth" came to Egypt to buy bread. The narrative also indicates that they went straight to Joseph or were directed to him, even by Pharaoh himself, so as to buy from him. (Genesis 41:37-57)

The seven-year famine became so severe that toward the later period, even Egypt was feeling the effects. Because the Egyptians had used up all of their money to buy grain in the previous years, they began to pay with their livestock. As a last resort, all of the inhabitants of Egypt, less the Egyptian priestly class, sold their properties to Joseph for seed. As this land now belonged to Pharaoh, Joseph set a mandate that because the people would be sowing and harvesting seed on government property, a fifth of the produce should go to the Pharaoh. This mandate continued down to the days of Moses. (Genesis 47:20-31)]

To Hyksos Pharaoh Khyan, 1640 - 1600 BCE, (Fifteenth Dynasty) it was possible to establish the control over all Upper Egypt and to unite both parts of Egypt (Lower and Upper Egypt) in the uniform state. But after his death Thebes has declared the independence, and Thebesian governors have proclaimed themselves "anti-Pharaohs" (XVI dynasty). Sharply amplified XVII and XVIII dynasties of the Upper Egypt have definitively won struggle with Hyksos for association of the Upper and Lower Egypt in the uniform state, having adopted at Hyksos their advanced fighting tactics of horse chariots.

At all 23 Pharaohs-Hyksos Jews occupied all highest state posts of Egypt. Pharaohs-Hyksos (Semites) operated the country exclusively through Jews (Semites). They were the related people that united them against natives-Egyptians Theban dynasties. But the same circumstance united Egyptians-natives Theban dynasties against Hyksos-conquerors and their Jews-managers at Hyksos Pharaohs.

From Pharaoh Ahmosis I (1550-1525 BCE) from XVIII dynasty of the New Kingdom have begun the period exile Hyksos and Jews from Egypt. The baby of Jew Moses has literally rescued and has brought up the wife of Pharaoh Ahmosis I, mother of Pharaoh Amenhotep I, Queen Jahmes-Nefertari who has found baby Moses in a basket floating across Nile in 1518 BCE. Queen Jahmes-Nefertari has brought up Moses, as own son, as Egyptian Prince, as named brother of son-Pharaoh Amenhotep I with whom they have grown together with the earliest childhood in an imperial palace.

[There is a version that the Jewish mother Yoshebel (Yocheved) put her newborn son Moses in a cart, which the water of the Nile Pharaoh's daughter fell into the hands of Bat′i. (Moses was born on 7 Adar [March, 4th 1518 BCE] and placed in the Nile River on 6 Sivan [May, 30th 1518 BCE], the same day he later brought the Jewish nation to Mount Sinai to receive the Torah).[2],[3]Moses was brought up at the Royal Court and as the son of Pharaoh's daughter got the best possible education at the time.It is clear, however, that the last word in such a procedure was adopted, no doubt, the Queen-Mother Jahmes-Nefertari. [4]]

[According to the Torah, Jochebed (/ˈjɒkɨbɛd/; Hebrew: יוֹכֶבֶד / יוֹכָבֶד, Modern Yoḫéved / Yoḫáved Tiberian Yôḵéḇeḏ / Yôḵāḇeḏ; "Yahweh is glory") was a daughter of Levi and mother of Aaron, Miriam and Moses. She was the wife of Amram, as well as his aunt. No details are given concerning her life. According to Jewish legend, Jochebed is buried in the Tomb of the Matriarchs, in Tiberias.[5]]


Moses and Jochebed by Pedro Américo, 1884

Файл:The Finding of Moses.jpg

It is finding of Moses. [F. Gudoll, 1862]


Two Pharaohs have finished exile process Hyksos and Jews from Egypt: Pharaoh Hatshepsut, 1508 - 1468 BCE [40 years], the Pharaoh (1490 - 1468 BCE) and Pharaoh Thutmose III, 1502 - 1425 BCE, the Pharaoh (1468 - 1425 BCE). Jew Moses, who has grown at court of the Pharaoh as the Egyptian Prince, confidentially was on friendly terms with Pharaoh Hatshepsut [he was in the status of her named "cousin" grandfather, "uncle" of her father of Pharaoh Thutmose I and named "brother" of her grandfather of Pharaoh Amenhotep I]. Moses being itself in the rank of the Egyptian priest divided the point of view of Pharaoh Hatshepsut about necessity of transition from pagan Polytheism to Monotheism with a view of strengthening of the centralized power in Egypt. On this soil, obviously, their joint struggle against priests-pagans. This struggle they had lost.

The irreconcilable conflict between Jew-monotheist Moses, on the one hand, both priests-pagans-polytheist and Pharaoh-pagan Thutmose III, on the other hand, has led to the Egyptian Holocaust, the first in the history which has come to the Exodus of Jews in 1446 BCE from pagan Egypt hostile to them via98 years after exile Hyksos from Egypt by Pharaoh Ahmosis I (1544 BCE - 1446 BCE = 98 years).

Pharaoh Thutmose III was that Pharaoh who has definitively expelled Hyksos and Jews from delta of Nile in Egypt. Pharaoh Akhenaten ("Effective spirit of Aten"), formerly Amenhotep IV Uaenra Neferheperura (ruled 1351-1334 BCE)], Queen Nefertiti, the wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten, [Nefertiti, Great Royal Wife, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (1370 BCE - 1330 BCE)],Pharaoh Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great, 1279-1213 BCE and Pharaoh Banenre Merneptah, son of PharaohRamesses II the Great, (1213–1203 BCE) [Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC.A stele describing campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the only extant reference to "Israel"in Ancient Egyptian records. His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means "The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods"] have, apparently, no any relation to the Exodus of Jews from Egypt. They lived much later.

In a practicable plan "Exodus" can be estimated as "Retreat" in the lost war between army of Jews under command of Moses, Aaron and Joshua [Yehoshua orIisús Navín], on the one hand, and army of Egyptians of Pharaoh Tutmos III, on the other hand.

Within the whole 1447 BCE was, possibly, ten large battlesrepresented allegorically as («10 executions to Egypt» or «Plagues of Egypt» or «Ten Plagues») therefore the army of Jews (603550 man) has been tired out by Egyptians in a zone of "the Papyrian bog», whence they have managed to get out during outflow.

The army of Egyptians which pursued Jews was late and has got under inflow. Therefore it all has sunk in «Papyrian a bog». The commander of Egyptians has thus sunk in a bog. He, most likely, came from the imperial house of Pharaoh Tutmos III. Therefore Jews named him as "Pharaoh". But it precisely was not by Pharaoh Tutmos III.

Judea-managers have left Egypt (in 1446 BCE) only via 98 years after Hyksos-Pharaohs (in 1544 BCE) have been expelled actually. Jews-managers have been closely connected by family bonds with Theban dynasties of Pharaohs not less, than with dynasties of the expelled Pharaohs-Hyksos. But the party of Jews-managers has supported Pharaoh Hatshepsut against party of priests and their protégé of Pharaoh-bastard Tutmos III.

This circumstance became the main reason of exile of Jews from Egypt by priests-feudal lords and by their protégé the Pharaoh-"Monster" Tutmos III. Thus quality of management of economy of Egypt has sharply worsened.

Centralization of the power of Pharaohs has been broken by the priests-feudal lords who have poisoned Pharaoh Hatshepsut. Attempt of Pharaoh Akhenaten overcome centrifugal disintegration of the state by introduction of Monotheism and rough the massacre over priests-feudal lords has appeared late and unsuccessful by a principle of its organization. After that Egypt has promptly swept to the decline and it became an easy mark for conquerors.

At first Egypt has got under control the Persian Kings. Then Egypt was easily grasped by Greek Alexander III Macedonian and its satrap Ptolemy the Soter-Lag. Then by efforts Julius Caesar Egypt definitively lost any independence also has been transformed into a province of Roman Empire.

Judea began to profess officially Monotheism, since May, 30th [6 Sivan] 1446 BCE. It is considered that Moses has received a Torah from hands of God (or has written down it from dictation of God) on mount Sinai [Mount Sinai] in May (30th)[6 Sivan], that is via 49 days after the Exodus Jews from Egypt on April, 10th, [15 Nisan], in 1446 BCE [at 50 daysafter the Exodus Jews from Egypt or a short name "Pentecost"]. Mount Sinai - mountain on the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. According to a Torah, on this mountain God had appeared Moses and has given Ten Commandments. On Mount Sinai there is a small cave where within forty (40) days and nights Moses took cover (Exodes, 24:18, Exodes, 33:20-23).[6]

[Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء Ṭūr Sīnāʼ  or جبل موسىJabal Mūsá ; Egyptian Arabic: Gabal Mūsa, lit. "Moses' Mountain" or "Mount Moses"; Hebrew:  הר סיניHar Sinai ), also known as Mount Horeb, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai. The latter is mentioned many times in the Book of Exodus in the Torah, the Bible, and the Quran. According to JewishChristian and Islamic tradition, the biblical Mount Sinai was the place where Moses received the Ten Commandments.][7]

[In the Torah, (in the Bible), Shavuot is called the Festival of Weeks (Hebrew: חגהשבועות, Ḥag ha-Shavuot, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:10); Festival of Reaping (Hebrew: חגהקציר, Ḥag ha-Katsir, Exodus 23:16), and Day of the First Fruits (Hebrew יוםהבכורים, Yom ha-Bikkurim, Numbers 28:26).

The Talmud refers to Shavuot as Atzeret (Hebrew: עצרת‎, literally, "refraining" or "holding back"), referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday and to the conclusion of the holiday and season of Passover. Since Shavuot occurs 50 days after Passover, Hellenistic Jews gave it the name "Pentecost" (πεντηκοστή, "fiftieth day") (not to be confused with the Christian observance of Pentecost).

Shavuot commemorates the anniversary of the day God gave the Torah to the entire nation of Israel assembled at Mount Sinai, although the association between the giving of the Torah (Matan Torah) and Shavuot is not explicit in the Biblical text.

The holiday is one of the Shalosh Regalim, the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals. It marks the conclusion of the Counting of the Omer, and its date is directly linked to that of Passover. The Torah mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah.

On Passover, the people of Israel were freed from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on Shavuot they were given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving God. The word Shavuot means weeks and the festival of Shavuot marks the completion of the seven-week counting period between Passover and Shavuot.

Shavuot is one of the lesser-known Jewish holidays among secular Jews in the Jewish diaspora, while those in Israel are more aware of it. According to Jewish law, Shavuot is celebrated in Israel for one day and in the Diaspora (outside of Israel) for two days. Reform Judaism celebrates only one day, even in the Diaspora.] [8]

The Exodus of Jews from Egypt is a consequence of adherence of Jews to Monotheism, their unwillingness to assimilate with pagans in Egypt and, as consequence, to be in lifelong slavery at the Egyptian priests-pagans and Pharaohs-pagans. Moses at the moment of the Exodus of Jews from Egypt there were 72±5 years (1518 BCE - 1446 BCE = 72 years).

The Exodus of Jews from Egypt passed through a place of «Yam Suph», in delta of Nile which was called as "The canes sea" (Exodus 15:4) or «the Reed Sea» or «by Sea Reed» or «the Sea of canes» or «the Papyrian bog» (Exodus 14, 2).

But English language expression «the Sea reeds» is translated as «the Reed Sea». The translator in a word «Reed» [«reed»] had loses once one of two letters «e». Therefore it has turned out «the Red sea», that is "Red sea" on which reeds (cane) does not grow at all.

And this error of the translator is multiplied today in millions copies of editions of a Torah-Bible worldwide and in all books derivative of them. Jews never had passed through (via) «Red sea» [along its bottom]. Red sea was away from the way of their moving to Canaan (look at the picture).

After good luck on «the Papyrian bog» Jews have gone on so-called to "a southern way» (230 km as the crow flies from Suez to Elot) which was used for movement of trading caravans and military units (from North Country of Gulf of Suez to northern part of the Agaba gulf).

Further they must be go to round the Akab gulf from the north (around modern Elot) to turn on the south and to go to «the Almond Mountain» on Arabian Peninsula, (as considers Lennart Möller) or to go directly to mount Sinai on the Sinai Peninsula.

It was the most practical and fast route allowing Jews via 7 days to reach of northern part of the Akab gulf. On this road did not have mountains.

Judea move with a speed about 3 km at an o'clock and passed 5 hours in the afternoon and 5 hours at night every days they had 14 hours for rest. Thus, they passed approximately on 30 km daily.

Presence at the bottom of the Akab gulf around peninsula Nuweiba of "the underwater bridge» on depth 240 - 800 m, corpses of people, horses, a horned cattle and chariots the equal account nothing does not prove also explains nothing: all seas and oceans are original cemeteries of the ships which were wrecked. Hundred thousand people, units of technics, gold, brilliants and animals has sunk, huge riches have settled at the bottom.

It is impossible to find a natural explanation how water of the Akab gulf could be divided in two part of the in region Nuweiba. In this respect doubts are not present. There is no such wind which could "blow" in the sea a furrow of 14 km in length and some honeycombs of meters depth and 1-2 km the width of the on which at the same time there can go the people. The wind of such force all live would have destroyed on this way.

But clearly one: Moses has received a Torah-Bible in the form of 10 commandments through 50 day after the Exodus from Egypt. On this key condition corresponds only Mount Sinai on the Sinai Peninsula.

«The Almond Mountain»on Arabian Peninsula does not correspond by this condition. Lennart Möller[1]asserts that could was to reach «The Almond Mountain» only through 8 weeks [that is 56 days = 7 days in a week * 8 weeks], and in addition after that Moses has spent 40 days in a cave at mountain top.

Lennart Möller writes: «According to the Bible text, after eight weeks after an exit from Egypt Israelis arrive to the first purpose of the travel - a grief «Sinai» [«The Almond Mountain»on Arabian peninsula] to make there worship the Lord. Considering speed of movement of Israelis and other factors, it is possible to assume that the way from the Earth Ramses [Goshen] to region Nuweibahas occupied one week. The remained seven weeks refugees have spent in northwest Saudi Arabia, moving from place to place».

This unsoluble contradiction, on my opinion, speaks in favor of approval that Jews did not pass through Red sea on its bottom in region Nuweiba. Otherwise they would receive 10 commandments not via 50 days after the Exodus from Egypt, but only via 96 days (56 days + 40 days = 96 days).


The Jews entered the Land of Canaan (at the Promised Land, that was promised to them by God) after 7 Adar (March, 4th) in 1406 BCE (1446 BCE-40 years = 1406 BCE) via 40 years after the date of the Exodus at once after Moses' death at age 112 years ± 5 years (1518-1406 BCE = 112).

Moses has died a month before the introduction of Jews into Palestine[9]. Capture of Palestine by Jews has begun, thus, in April 1406 BCE.

Our calculation almost precisely (exactly, accuracy) coincides with primary sources. In the Talmud it is told that Moses has lived 120 years and has died this on the same day, as was born (7 Adar that is on March, 4th).

[Moses died, at the age of one hundred and twenty, according to Talmudic legend on 7 Adar, his 120th birthday exactly».[10], [11]]


На пути в Ханаан

Wandering of Israel[12]



 Key role in studying of this question have played twothe ingenious Jews: Rabbi Moses Maimonides and the founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud.

In 1939 in the work «Moses and monotheism» Sigmund Freud has connected the doctrine of Moses with the religion accepted in Egypt during board of Pharaoh Akhenaten. This religion had lines of monotheism. It was based on worship only to one deity from Ancient Egyptian a pantheon - to god Aten. The symbol of Aten the Egyptian God of the Sun was the solar disk in the form of beams, performs as the opened palms which are stretched towards to the whole terrestrial. Spirit of Aten [in the form of rays of light] being aeriform [incorporeal or object without real body] is the by the highest force, a sparing life to whole live on the Earth.

Being based on data of Manetho, Freud states a guess that after a failure of this religion in Egypt one of pupils of Akhenaten (Osarsiph) has made an attempt to unite under its aegis other people, having made together with it runaway from Egypt. It carries Exodus date at once behind date of death of Akhenaten that is after 1334 BCE. Freud's idea has found support at Joseph Campbell, and modern Egyptologist Ahmed Osman even has assumed idea that Moses and Akhenaten – the same person.

Sigmund Freud's opinion did not consider that circumstance that beginning already with IV dynasty (2613 to 2498 BCE) in Egypt was a Sun cult [Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty, 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs which the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus) also Thoridea].

On that moment idea "Pharaoh", in sense "King", in Egypt begins connect with the Solar God «Ra» which his son considers but not with idea of the Mansion pagan god. It is connected with astronomy development, the beginning of building of huge pyramids [focused, perhaps, on the constellation Orion, for example], understanding and comprehension of an exclusive role of the Sun in all displays of the Life on the Earth.

The Jewish [Hebrew] word [«pharioh»] is a simple transliteration Ancient Egyptian words «per-oh» which are meant «by the one who lives in an imperial palace». Greeks have translated it word on the Greek language a transliteration (replacement) of letters of the Hebrew on letters of the Greek alphabet and have received a modern word "Pharaoh" which Egyptians steels to apply, having adopted this word already from Greeks, only since XVIII dynasty [The New Kingdom (1550-1077 BCE) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BCE, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period].

In the original Egyptians named the King of "Nebtaui", that is «the Master of the both Earths», or "Nesu-Biti" that means «belonging to the Reed and the Bee» or that the same, to "the Lower and the Upper Egypt».

The founder of the Egyptian monotheism (which social essence consists in association of the power of the Pharaoh and the Main priest-Pontifex) was Pharaoh Hatshepsut (1508 - 1468 BCE [40 years], the Pharaoh: 1490 - 1468 BCE) at which the period of restoration of Egypt after invasion of conquerors the Hyksos (Gyksos) has ended.

To she was only 18 years when her husband and the brother simultaneously Pharaoh Tutmos II in 1490 BCE has died, and to her stepson (from Isida, the concubine of Pharaoh Tutmos II, her husband) Thutmose III, 1502 - 1425 BCE, was only 12 years. Hatshepsut there was Tutmos III stepmother (nonnative mother or «mother in the law»). At first she declared the regent at the minor stepson, and then priests-pagans have made her high-grade Pharaoh. They have precipitately considered that the young woman will be obedient them in all, and they will operate Egypt from her name. Her stepson has been reliably hidden in the Temple without any chances to occupy ever on the lawful bases the Egyptian throne.

Juvenile bastard [illegally born] Tutmos III [the Pharaoh: 1468 - 1425 BCE] priests-pagans have taken away on education to majority in the Temple. When Tutmos III (married at first on Neferure, the first daughter Hatshepsut, and then and on Meritre Hatshepsut, the second daughter Hatshepsut, which Hatshepsut prepared on the place and consequently has given her the imperial name "Hatshepsut") was 34 years, he most likely, has poisoned the stepmother. Without having any possibilities at live Hatshepsut most to become the Pharaoh, being "illegitimate", he has gone on regicide with direct support of party of priests-pagans. [Pharaoh Hatshepsut suddenly has unexpectedly died at the age of only 40 years with all signs of a serious poisoning].

As the Pharaoh, Hatshepsut has faced a phenomenon of sharp feudal strengthening of the power of priests-pagans. Negro Nehsi who supported Hatshepsut was the High priest-Pontifex of god Amon in all Egypt. Hatshepsut was the Supreme priestess of god Amononly in capital Thebes and she is formal in the area of religion submitted to the High priest-Pontifex of all Egypt.

Priests contained the pagan Temples for the account is feudal rural areas subject to them and cities in which they possessed high-grade and absolutely uncontrolled, absolute secular power. They have created own huge feudal armies of which there was a general state army of Egypt.

In these conditions the power of the Pharaoh promptly became purely nominal. In each large pagan Temple there was a cult pagan Deity in the form of some biological subject (the Sacred Person or the Sacred Animal). Spend any intelligible uniform state policy the Pharaoh in such conditions was unable purely physically, without having the real power in the country. Feudal dissociation of Egypt can will be overcome only having broken the unlimited absolute power of priests-feudal lords-pagans.

Nehsi the high priest of god Amon has made the revolutionary proposal to Pharaoh Hatshepsut. He made proposal to replace Polytheism priests-pagans of the Egyptian pantheon of gods in Monotheism, to enter uniform not biological the New Deity indisputable and obvious to all which would be really physically eternal. 

Such subject could be (and there was it) only a Sun. «Without the Sun the life fades. At its rising revives» [written by pharaoh Akhenaten]. This idea of monotheism of God of the Sun was divided completely by Jew Moses brought up at court of the Pharaoh who were on friendly terms with main Priest-Pontific Nehsi and himself a having rank Egyptian of the Priest.

Jew Moses has grown at court of the Pharaoh as the Egyptian prince, and confidentially was on friendly terms with Pharaoh Hatshepsut [it was in the status of her "cousin" grandfather, "uncle" of her father of Pharaoh Tutmos I and "brother" of her grandfather of Pharaoh Amenhotep I. Mother Amenhotep I, Queen Jahmes-Nefertari, has found baby Moses in a basket floating across Nile in 1518 BCE. Queen Jahmes-Nefertari has brought up Moses, as own son, as Egyptian prince, as named brother of her son Pharaoh Amenhotep I with whom they have grown together with the earliest childhood in an imperial palace].

Pharaoh Hatshepsut could not realize creation of a new cult of monotheism herself. Party of priests-pagans, having understood, at last, futility of the efforts to subordinate to the influence young Pharaoh Hatshepsut, has counted on politically deprived of civil rights «bastard» Tutmos III, the pupil, "illegal" Pharaoh-soruler Hatshepsut. Pharaoh Tutmos III, being politically deprived of civil rights, has grown not in an imperial palace, and in the Temple, and was under a complete control of party of priests-pagans. But also when he in the end of the board has essentially quarreled with them and at once after that unexpectedly and he has suddenly died on 77 year of a life. Tutmos III has died on March, 11th 1425 BCE. «Napoleon Ancient of the world» has been buried in the Valley of Pharaohs in tomb KV34.

Creation of the uniform strong Egyptian state which have united Egyptian, Nubian, West Semitic and partially Huritic the cultural traditions, has led finally to religious revolution of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV [the Pharaoh of "Ancient" Egypt (1375-1334 BCE)] and to creation of one of the oldest Monotheistic religions, as the answer to strengthening of political and economic power of priests-pagans [via 90 years after Jews (1446 BCE – 1356 BCE = 90 years)].

God Aten (God of the Sun) in the beginning of board of Pharaoh Akhenaten ("Effective spirit of Aten"), formerly Amenhotep IV Uaenra Neferheperura (ruled 1351-1334 BCE) - the tenth pharaoh XVIII dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, the famous "pharaoh - heretic"] acted as an embodiment of all main gods of the Sun. Then Pharaoh Amenhotep IV declared Aten uniform god of all Egypt, having forbidden worship other gods. Fine Queen Nefertiti (his cousin) was its main wife and adviser against party of priests-feudal lords-pagans.

It was full scale war against party of the priests-pagans, declared by Pharaoh Akhenaten (son of Amenhotep III and Queen Teye, the great-great-grandson of Pharaoh Tutmos III). Pharaoh Akhenaten [«Effective spirit of Aten»] (board time: 1351 - 1334 BCE) has constructed in honor of God Aten magnificent Whitestone a city in 300 km from Thebes. New capital named - Ahet-Aten (Ah-yati, «Horizon of Aten», nowadays a site of ancient settlement of Tel an ale-Amarna). The city of Ahet-Aten played at reform of erection of Egypt to uniform god a role of capital new monotheistic the states.

Pharaoh Akhenaten [Russian Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in this sense was the complete analogue of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten] has arranged the present physical slaughter of priests-feudal lords-pagans. Akhenaten has declared war not only to the main pagan Egyptian god Amon, but also all old pagan Egyptian gods. New god Aten has been proclaimed by unique god, the cult of all other gods has been excellent, pagan temples are closed, and priests-pagans are dispersed. Aspiring to erase even memory of names of former pagan gods, Akhenaten has ordered to destroy their names everywhere.

The name of Amon which priests were hated most of all by the Pharaoh, and also names of Mut and Honsu - components together with Amon; so-called «thebesian a triad» [«thebesian the Trinity»] was especially carefully erased and scratched out. Even he has not spared a name of the father: the Pharaoh has spoilt it, having exterminated its component - a name of Amon, or replaced its personal name "Amenhotep" with an imperial name "Nib-maat-Ra". "Mother" (Mut) in a tomb of Tie he wrote a word phonetic to avoid spelling by means of a sign on a kite to which the name of goddess Mut was written.

To new god Aten temples across all Egypt (Thebes, by Ahet-Aten, Gem-Aton, Heliopolis [the Sun city], Memphis, Germopol, and Fayum) were erected. These temples were allocated with the big ground files, the hunting and fish grounds, cattle, pastures, provided with a labour. The big staff of new priests - attendants of a cult of Monotheism has been founded.

Queen Nefertiti played an all-important role in a religious life of Egypt of that time, necessarily accompanying the spouse during sacrifices, religious rites and religious festivals. She was a live embodiment of life-giving force of the sun, sparing a life. She officially declared a live embodiment of the Daughter of God of the Sun-«Ra».

In Gempaatone and Hutbenbene - the big temples of god Aten in Thebes to it uplifted prayers; any of temple actions could not occur without her, pledge of fertility and prosperity of all country. «She spends Aten on rest a delightful voice and fine hands with sistras, - is told about she in inscriptions of tombs of grandees-contemporaries, - at a sound of she voice exult».


Figure of standing naked Nefertiti in all growth


Walls of the hall erected by Akhenaten on 6th year of board [1351 BCE - 6 years = 1345 BCE] in the capital for celebrating of ceremony of Sed, have been decorated by enormous sculptural images of naked Nefertiti identified with goddess Tephnut - the goddess of a moisture, the Daughter of God of the Sun-«Ra», world harmony standing on maintenance and the divine law. In this form of Nefertiti she could be represented as a sphinx, amazing of Mace the enemies of Egypt.

Nofretete Neues Museum.jpg

The bust of Nefertiti from the Ägyptisches Museum Berlincollection, presently in the Neues Museum


Possessing the huge power, the Queen was represented in the favourite headdress - the high dark blue wig twisted with gold tapes and Urey which symbolically underlined her communication with terrible goddesses, daughters of the Sun more often. Never earlier Egypt not generated such beauty. She named "Made"; her face decorated temples on all country.

But Pharaoh Akhenaten, finally, has lost civil war to priests-pagans. Priests-pagans have poisoned him at 41-year-old age (on one of lists has drawing with attempt to kill at him) is represented after he has quarreled with his wife Nefertiti, and has sent her from itself, having sided with his mother proposing on compromise the Pharaoh with priests-pagans. Images of Nefertiti began to delete from Temples.

Meritaten - born year 1 [(1351 BCE) – 1 = 1350 BCE] at the age of 14 years ("loved by Aten", received this name or before wedding, or right after weddings in 1336 BCE), oldest daughter Akhenaten from Nefertiti, became the main wife Akhenaten after Nefertiti. Kiya was the lesser Royal Wifewhich has given birth to Akhenaten of two sons-Pharaohs - Smenkhkare and Tutankhamen renamed Tutankhamun later. Kiya has early died.

After murder of Akhenaten in 1334 BCE priests-pagans have subjected memory of Pharaoh Akhenaten to procedure of a shameful, humiliating anathema in all again open pagan temples of Egypt. The nickname was fixed to be «the Enemy from Ahet-Aten» which priests designated the Pharaoh written in rolls after his death, without wishing to name with hatred his by name. They eradicated his name everywhere where could. Priests-pagans had revengedof Pharaoh-monotheistic- "heretic" his same means.

The monotheism at that time became the present religion only at Jews. The Egyptian Prince, Jew Moses, essentially could not get peace on with Pharaoh-pagan Tutmos III, [for which it formally was in the status named of the "great-grandfather].

Tutmos III has acted in the beginning of the board, as the convinced, irreconcilable and spiteful priest-pagan, against monotheism in general, and for this reason, against Jews, in particular.

It was the starting point of occurrence of anti-Semitism and the Holocaust in the history. Illegal Pharaoh - assassin of the Pharaoh Hatshepsut - anti-Semite Tutmos III was «Hitler Ancient of the world».

Failure of the Egyptian variant of Monotheism of the Sun consisted that really it there was Monotheism of exclusively God-person (the Daughter of God of the Sun, instead of the Sun) Queen Nefertiti within 20 years exactly (1356 BCE - 1336 BCE = 20 years).

Then Nefertiti, as well as all mortal women, has grown old, was ill, giving birth to each three years on the next child (she has given birth to 6 daughters) and raising each of them an own breast. With death of Nefertiti in 1330 BCE has died in Egypt and her name Monotheism. Will bow there was nobody.

Why the variant of Judaic Monotheism has appeared exclusively successful? It is because it essentially is not connected to any real concrete Person. The Judaic Messiah is not the God-person. It the simple Person by the definition, allocated with by nature special outstanding abilities. The Bar-Kokhba for example proclaimed the Messiah, rabbi Akiva was such. The Eternal Immortal Incorporeal God is One. And the Messiahs-people can be much and all of them will be mortal.

For the first time in the Middle Ages idea of incorporeality of God has accurately and unequivocally expressed ingenious rabbi Moses Maimonides in XI century CE. [«I believe with perfect faith that God does not have a body. Physical concepts do not apply to Him. There is nothing whatsoever that resembles Him at all. »[13] ]

As the great doctor and the scientist of time [the best interpreter of philosophy of Aristotle and the personal doctor of Egyptian sultan Saladin] rabbi Moses Maimonides has understood that any cellular biological natural bodies live being on the Earth (an animal, a plant, an insect, a bird, fish) is absolutely mortal. Possess immortality are only not cellular, not biological physical systems. The Sun in this context is ideal object and the subject of the Monotheism.

Thus, the theological idea of "Doomsday" has the quite real physical substantiation. The Sun in the Past "has generated" the Earth. The Sun in the Future «destroy» of the Earth. The Sun is a unique source of the Life on the Earth. And in this sense the Sun (if so you can correctly say) is an embodiment of theological idea of uniform incorporeal God of the Universe for Mankind.

Date of occurrence of a phenomenon of "GLOBALIZATION RELIGION" by right is date of Exodus Jews from Egypt - in the first full moon (the April, 10th or 15 Nisan) after day of a Spring (Vernal) Equinox in 1446 BCE.



Now all world (approximately 210 countries) goes to universal globalization, to uniformity are resolute in all fields of activity. Two key aspects are especially allocated on this background: financial and calendar which were for the first time in history imposed against each other in time, synergy effect having strengthened mutual influence.

Creation of uniform universal world payment system always results or in an international tension, or is its consequence (military "hot" and "cold" conflicts 1865, 1922, 1944 and 1976).

Change world calendar systems also usually are caused deep social shocks or results in them (for example, murder Julia Caesar in March 44 BCE is direct at the moment of change of calendar system in Ancient Rome in the period 47-45 BCE).

To the middle of May, 2012 of 140 states under the aegis of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and the republic of South Africa) have acted against 5 countries (the USA, Great Britain, Germany, France and Italy) in Switzerland and have signed the Memorandum of Agreements with the requirement to change the existing world financial system created on the basis of dollar FRS USA and to cancel the decision about demonetization gold.

The designated financial problem is adjoined closely by a calendar problem. The divergence between a Catholic Gregorian Christian calendar of Vatican and an orthodox Christian Julian calendar has led a religious calendar problem up a blind alley with approach of a critical situation of 2100.

Globalization of the world economy has revealed basic ineradicable lacks of a medieval Gregorian Catholic calendar of Vatican from 1582. The beginning of an epoch of development of near and far space has shown impossibility of use of any of 40 calendar systems adhered to hopelessly out-of-date inexact religious passive analogue medieval calendars.

Our work is devoted representation of the wide public of developed universal absolutely exact actively operated calendar digital matrix for any calendar of the world, successfully resolving all calendar problems which have arisen for today of mankind.}



Russia conducts now working out of a multi-purpose piloted spaceship "Russia", having refused the project "Clipper" and declared piloted flights on the Moon in the future.

In the USA the multi-purpose the research applied piloted ship "Orion" intending as for replacement of system «the Space a shuttle» is projected at circumterraneous flights and for maintenance of piloted flights on the Moon about 2019-2020 and in the long term to Mars within the limits of cancelled ambitious «programs Constellation». The beginning of circumterraneous orbital flights of the ship "Orion" is expected in 2014-2015

Thus, the USA within at least five years will not have own piloted spaceship as all shuttles have been written off in 2011. During all this time of the American astronauts will carry Russian Space Department.

China declared the extensive space program including in the near future - creation of own piloted orbiting station and in the long-term future - piloted reusable transport space systems of following generation and piloted flights to the Moon.

Except the USA, Russia and China programs on independent piloted astronautics have also other countries of the world.

Europe (the European space agency) develops both actually European and joint Russian-European piloted spaceships for use since 2018. Within the limits of the extensive program "Aurora" Europe plans in cooperation with the USA and Russia or independently to send people on the Moon since 2025 and then to Mars after 2030.

India plans to become the following (4th) space superstate and to begin starts of own piloted spaceship since 2016, and in far prospect in cooperation with Russia or even is independent - to deliver the person to the Moon.

Japan continues researches in the field of creation of piloted reusable transport space systems and declared plans of piloted flights to the Moon after 2025 year.

Iran with 2005-2008 the work beginnings on creation by 2020 of own small piloted spaceship and in the long term - a small orbiting station.

Turkey has made the stage-by-stage plan of deployment of own astronautics, coming to the end with creation of a piloted spaceship after 2020.

Malaysia declared desire to become the initiator and the coordinator of creation of the incorporated space program of the Muslim world, including independent piloted astronautics.

Within the limits of space tourism of company Scaled Composites and a little others continue working out of tourist suborbital and orbital spaceships and even orbiting stations with plans of the beginning of regular operation in the near future.

With the advent of the artificial intellect which is not conceding human, a parcel in very distant space to other galaxies people adapted for terrestrial conditions it can exclusively appear obviously inexpedient. In September, 2009 this idea has stated and has proved physicist Oleg Dobrocheev.

In a reality of research of Space both forms will combine as near Space is necessary first of all to people of the Earth, as the environment of new most comfortable dwelling and residing, than living conditions on the Earth. Distant space flights, extent in hundred thousand years, will be charged systems with an artificial intellect. It is obvious and rational.



WC - (World Creation) a time interval from prospective religious Date of creation of Adam (5508BCE), that is from World Creation.

CE - (Common Era - the General Era) time account, beginning from 5509WC = 1CE. From this point on two Easters (Judaic [Passover] and Christian [Easter]) began to be marked together after the fact of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on 1447 under the account Judaic Passover in 5509 year BCE.

BCE - (Before Common Era - Before the General era) time account, beginning from 5508WC = 1BCE in the opposite direction on an axis of the time from date of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

AM or (MC) - («Anno Mundi») or «Moon Creation», - phantom Date «creations of the first Moon or the First New Moon», time account, beginning from (3761-3760) BCE, Monday, at 5 o'clock and 204 parts in the afternoon in a Judaic calendar.



«Hijri» is aday resettlements of Prophet Mohammed and its adherents (Muhajirian) from Mecca to Jasrib (Medina) in 622 year CE.

TWCA, US, Kansas, The World Calendar Association's (current director is Wayne Edward Richardson of Ellinwood, Kansas) - the World Calendar Association in the USA.

2013CE=1NE (Galaxy Era - GE) "the First" year of a new calendar era.

UM - theUniversal Matrix of a mathematical secular "eternal" calendar consisting of 13 months.

Secular [the Seventh under the account] the ACTIVE 13-month's uniform universal digital mathematical calendar which is offered for entering since January, 1st 2013 CE, that is [Tropical Calendar Serpentarius or Serpent-Holder] - "an eternal" New calendar of Mankind (global, space), a calendar on the basis of the Universal Matrix (UM).

Analogue PASSIVE 12-month's calendars of mankind:

1). The Egyptian calendar [a cycle of a star Sirius], entered by the Konopsky decree Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget [246-222 BCE].

2). The Julian calendar - theEgyptian calendar entered in Rome, Julius Caesar in 45 BCE.

3). A Judaic calendar [a cycle of Meton] - acalendar entered by Patriarch Gilel II in 359 CE.

4). An Islamic calendar [the Moon cycle] - acalendar entered by Prophet Mohammed in 632 CE.

5). Persian (Iranian) [equinoctal a cycle of a star of the Sun] a calendar entered by the Omar Khayyam in 1071 CE.

6). The Gregorian calendar - [equinoctal cycle of a star of the Sun] a calendar entered by Pope Grigory XIII in 1582 CE.

[7). Active Tropical Calendar Serpentarius or Serpent-Holder, that is a tropical cycle of a star of the Sun].

Julian year is equal 365.25 days = 365 days of 6 hours of 00 minutes of 00 seconds.

The Gregorian year is equal 365.2425000 days = 365 days of 5 hours of 49 minutes of 12 seconds.

Tropical year - year, is the time necessary that the sun, having begun the movement from chosen ecliptic longitudes, has finished one full cycle of seasons and has come back to the same ecliptic to a longitude.

Tropical year (also known as solar year) in a general sense is an interval of time for which the sun finishes one cycle of revolution of the season as it is visible from the Earth from one day summer [or winter] solstices about other day summer [or winter] solstices on tropic of Cancer [or tropic of Capricorn], in, equal «365.2421875» days or 365 days of 5 hours of 48 minutes of 45 seconds, calculated by Johan Kepler in 1627 CE. (In 1627, Kepler used the observation of Tycho Brahe and Waltherus to produce the most accurate tables up to that time, the Rudolphine Tables. He evaluated the tropical year as 365 solar days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45 seconds, - that has made 365.2421875 days.) [iii] .[iv]

Average solar days increase on 1,5 мс for each 100 tropical years. Current value of average duration of tropical year for January, 1st, 2000 has made 365,2421897 days or 365 days of 5 hours of 48 minutes of 45,19 seconds that completely coincides to 5 signs after a comma, with the value calculated by Johann Kepler in 1627, and 0.19 seconds] differ from it only for 0.0000022 days [The expression approaching for calculation of duration of tropical year far back in the past is offered[v]:

365.2421896698 − 6.15359×10^−6T − 7.29×10^−10T2 + 2.64×10^−10T3

Where «Т» - time in Julian centuries («1» Julian century is equal in accuracy of 36525 days), counted from midday on January, 1st, 2000. [vi]

The solar eclipse [full or partial] is a situation when the Moon is between the Sun and the Earth in a day new moon and closes itself a solar disk in the afternoon for the observer from the Earth. Round the Moon disk the solar crown is observed. To the Earth artificial night for an eclipse (closing) by the Sun Moon falls.

The lunar eclipse [full or partial] is a situation when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon in a night full moon and closes itself the Sun for the observer from the Earth. The moon deprived of solar illumination has a blood-red shade at night.

"Voyager -2", the American space probe started in the USA on August, 20th 1977 CE. In 296036 CE it will approach to a star Sirius on distance of 4.3 light years.

Phantom scale of calendar world history of mankind. Exact date of readout of the general era (Common Era - CE): 1 year CE, and a galactic era: 1 year GE.

The first full moon (14-15 nisan) after day of a spring equinox 24 овен UM (on March, 20-21th a Gregorian calendar): 5509 WC or 3761 AM (It is of 1447 Passover Judaic under account after Jews Exodus from Egipt in 4063 WC.) = 1 year CE = date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ [17 Taurus UM, or on April, 10-11th a Gregorian calendar].

It is exact date of first general Easter[Passover (Exodus)] at Christians and Jews. It is exact date of the general Passover-Easter Eraof Mankind. It is of 1447 Passover under account after Jews Exodus from Egipt (4063 WC + 1446 BCE = 5509 WC = 1 CE).



I consider offered by me Uniform for the Earth and Space the Calendar as the intermediary between an objective astronomical reality and subjective economic activities of the Human Civilization.

The Uniform universal mathematical model is put in basis of definition of duration of year of any Calendar.

UNIFORM UNIVERSAL MATHEMATICAL MODEL of CALCULATION of DURATION of YEAR FOR ALL EXISTING TYPES of CALENDARS in which for the first time considered the regular (systemic) error of all existing and all before existing calendar systems strictly quantitatively is more exhaustively. Different ways of its calculation are shown. All passive calendars (lunar, solar and luni-solar) the Human Civilization are completely collected for the first time in uniform calendar system on the basis of the Uniform active digital universal matrix entered by me.

For the first time «the Calendar constant» which has the same value for the calendar theory as Planck's constant for the theoretical quantum physics and a constancy of a velocity of light for the Relativity Theory is calculated.

Offered by me digital active universal Uniform for the Earth and Space the calendar with correction of leap-years on Medler-Mendeleev has accuracy at a rate of 1 day of an error at passage more than 15 million years. It the minimum in 4000-5000 times is more exact than any of calendars existing nowadays.

This calendar completely provides requirements of all mankind for all remained astronomical term of its stay on the Earth till the moment when the life on the Earth becomes essentially impossible (in the theory of evolution of the Sun this term the maximum in 1.1 billion years) is defined.

The calendar offered by me as a special astronomical unit of measure of time it is not connected in any way with Solar system and consequently is suitable for the Mankind mastering Space not only within Solar system. "Support" of the calendar offered by me is «the Calendar Constant».

I wish to underline very important circumstance: all Mankind, almost 7 billion the person on the Planet is resolute and all 210 states on the Earth annually recalculate all plans and budgets, millions enterprises, children's, educational and scientific institutions do today the same, - and all it because of a primitive Gregorian medieval calendar of the sample of 1582.

Americans name such absolutely monkey business «business of monkeys» [or that the same, "lost Labour"]. And «business of monkeys» all are engaged in it today on the Earth is universal. Therefore, speaking in images, the Human Civilization yet has not finished transition from the Monkey to the Person. Using «a calendar of monkeys», it is essentially impossible to make it. The Earth represents today certain, if one may say so, «the Planet of Monkeys».

The calendar system is, if so it is possible to be expressed, «not deleted system file» all economy of the Human Civilization. And this «not deleted system file» is in a kernel of "computer" of all global economy, essentially limiting to its imperfection. In my work it is a question of replacement of this system kernel of global economy by much more perfect variant. It will allow "computer" of all global economy to work with efficiency a minimum in one thousand times more, than today that, undoubtedly, it is useful for an exit from a world economic crisis which lasts is permanent since 2008.

Consequence of constant senseless annual recalculations is systemic accumulation of a large quantity of casual statistical errors inevitable in the big data files which have very many serious consequences.

For example, destruction of a spaceship of reusable uses "Challenger" on January, 28th, 1986. In connection with this accident of the USA have incurred heavy losses - nearby 8 billion dollars, including and cost of the shuttle which is estimated in $3 billion for the same reason the Shuttle "Colombia" was lost on February, 1st, 2003.

Numerous heavy accidents of the Russian astronautics have the same inevitable statistical etiology.

Only with transition to the new active digital calendar offered by me, Uniform for the Earth and Space, the Human Civilization will finish, at last, prolonged rather painful «process of transition from the Monkey to the Person» and only then, at last, «the Monkey's period» Mankind developments will sink into oblivion.

It will not be necessary to recalculate senselessly anything else. The calendar offered by me is strictly stabilized on a date started of the New Year by means of the mechanism thought up by me of "a synchronisation saw».

Before Mankind today there is in the all growth a dilemma: what annually to "shift", or all plans, without touching the calendar mechanism, or the mechanism of a calendar, without touching plans? From the point of view of astronomy these operations are absolutely equivalent. But from the point of view of economy these operations are not equivalent.


The cycle from 5125 years of a calendar of Maya has ended in 2012 (more precisely in May, 12th 2013). Objectively since May, 13th 2013 has begun about a new calendar cycle which will last without any corrections of the calendar offered by me more than 15 million years. It will be a calendar of People, forever the left «the world of Monkeys» if so it is possible to be expressed correctly figuratively.



What have I made? In the shortest (compressed) kind my offer looks as follows.

            Combination of the Ancient Judaic calendar with elements of the Gregorian calendar and a Universal MatrixI have made Modern Hebrew calendar which is the basis for all other calendars of the worldas only in the Ancient Judaic calendar there is a matrix from 13 months without which it is impossible to construct the Uniform calendar. In existing Ancient Hebrew calendar I have brought all only the 5 amendments.

It is the 1st amendment. Ancient Hebrew Calendar has two different annual matrixes alternating among themselves: one for 12 months (for 12 usual years), another for 13 months (for 7 leap years). The matrix for 12 months cannot have equal number of full days in a month (364 days / 12 months = 30.33 days) or (365 days / 12 months = 30.417 days) or (366 days / 12 months = 30.5 days). Therefore I have chosen a matrix which contains 13 months, and have transformed it (364 days / 13 months = 28 days) or (365 days / 13 months = 28.0769 days) or (366 days / 13 months = 28.1538 days). 

I have replaced artificial plug-in leap month Adar-1 with regular constant month of zodiac Serpentarius and have put it on the 11th place after a month Aquarius. Month Aquarius I have put on 1st a place as it takes place in Gregorian calendar.

It is the 2nd amendment. The Ancient Hebrew Calendar has two different lengths of month: 29 and 30 days. I have chosen 28 days for each of 13 months. Month the Capricorn has one additional days (365th days): for usual year «Capricorn-29», and two additional days (365th and 366th days) for a leap-year: "Capricorn-29" and "Capricorn-30". 

It is the 3rd amendment. Ancient Hebrew Calendar has leap function (7/19 = 0.3684210 {526315789} days). I have chosen in other leap function (31/128 = 0.2421875 days). 

It is the 4th amendment. The Ancient Hebrew Calendar has on the average conditional duration of 354 full days in usual year or 355 full days in leap year (lunar year). I have added 11 days and have received 365 full days in usual year and 366 full days in leap year (that is has translated the lunar year in the solar year for the coordination with the Gregorian calendar). 

As a result of these amendments I have received absolutely identical duration astronomically and calendar year. The system error between them have the size in 1 days, runs for more, than 15 full millions years (instead of 1 days for each 304 years today). This calendar is suitable for calculations in space navigation at piloted flights in space. 

It is the 5th amendment. I stabilized the beginning of year on date Aquarius, 1st (or on January, 1st, as it takes place in Gregorian Calendar for coordination Gregorian Calendar with Modern Hebrew Calendar), using offered by me «the synchronization saw» (look a rule «Capricorn-29» and «Capricorn-30»). Thus, the passive Ancient Hebrew calendar becomes the active Modern Hebrew calendar. 

But this same what to stabilize a calendar by date of Rosh Hashanah (Scorpio, 12th or equal: Tishrei, 1st)

 For all calendars of the world I have made the sheet-calendar compactly in system "XL" (see «appendices: 32-37») on the only one digital Universal Matrix.

Offered by me Modern Hebrew calendar keeps without changes all holiday’s ancient Hebrew calendar. Also remain without changesall religious holidays of the all other religions of the world (the Islam, the Christianity, the Buddhism, and the Shintoism etc.). I have topologically changed (have transformed) only a calendar matrix, in any way without changing its internal essence.

 Thus, all religions of the world will conduct the services on the same unique civil secular calendar. The calendar becomes uniform for all. In it is the essence of "calendar globalization». 


[iii] Meeus, J., Savoie, D. The history of the tropical year Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 102(1), 1992. 40–42. (Engl.).

Seidelmann, P. K. (Ed.). (1992). Explanatory supplement to the Astronomical almanac. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. ISBN 0-935702-68-7 (Engl.)

Blackburn, B. & Holford-Strevens (2003, corrected reprint of 1999). The Oxford companion to the year. Oxford University Press.

S. Cassidy, Error in statement of tropical year, 1996

М. Л. Городецкий, К вопросу о точности григорианского календаря и лунного цикла // Историко-астрономические исследования, Вып. XXXV. —М.: Физматлит, 2010, C. 289—293.

[iv] Meeus & Savoie,The history of the tropical year Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 102(1), 1992, p. 41

[v] McCarthy D. & Seidelmann, P. K. Time from Earth rotation to atomic physics. — Weinhein: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA., 2009. — P. 351. — ISBN 9783527407804

Secular terms of the classical planetary theories using the results of general theory. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 157, 59—70. ISSN 0004-6361 (Engl.)

[vi] McCarthy D. & Seidelmann, P. K. Time from Earth rotation to atomic physics. — Weinhein: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA., 2009. — P. 351. — ISBN 9783527407804

Secular terms of the classical planetary theories using the results of general theory. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 157, 59—70. ISSN 0004-6361 (Engl.)



[1] Lennart Möller "The Exodus Case" Scandinavia Publishing Limited" 2004.


[1] George Robinson. Essential Judaism. New York. 2000. P.416.

[1] Леннарт Мёллер. Дело об Исходе [LennartMöller. Exodus case]

НБАО  <http://nbad.narod.ru/exodus_case/28.htm>

[2] Erdstein, Rabbi Baruch E.; Kumer, Nechama Dina (2011)."Why do we eat dairy foods on Shavuot?"

[3] Shavuot <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shavuot>

[4] Исход. <http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C8%F1%F5%EE%E4>

[5] Jochebed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[6] Десять заповедей


[7] Ten Commandments


[8] Shavuot. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


[10] Talmud Bavli, Megilah 13b, Sotah 12b, Kidushin 38a, Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', 5 [ed. Weiss, p. 60a]; comp. Josephus, l.c. iv. 8, § 49. According to the Seder Olam in the year 2488 (corresponding to ca. Feb-Mar 1271 BCE; Seder Olam's calendar starts two years later than the one currently used by Jews.)

[11] Moses. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses>

[12]НапутивХанаан. [On a way to Canaan]