Chapter 5




There has come the Epoch of development by Mankind of planets of Solar system. In space flights there will be no change of day and night. There will be no change of seasons. Will not be nutation and processions of an axis of rotation of the Earth (effect of rotation of a top). There will be no most «the Earth under foot and the Moon in the sky». Will not be neither lunar, nor a terrestrial star solar calendar. However and those who remained on the Earth, and at those who is in distant Space, at astronauts (Moslems, Jews, Christians, Buddhists and atheists), should have absolutely identical readout of time.

There should be the same absolutely exact mathematical calendar. There has objectively come an epoch Uniform for the Earth and Space of an active digital base universal quantum Mathematical Calendar. All will be equal in Space. The space religion will be Religion of Uniform God.

I consider offered by me Uniform for the Earth and Space the Calendar as the intermediary between an objective astronomical reality and subjective economic activities of the Human Civilization.

The problem of discrepancy of the beginning of the New Year of a calendar and astronomical the New Year always was a headache of all astronomers at all times. And anybody before us has not found the ideal decision of this problem. We have found this decision.

Today to Mankind are known 6 (six) types of so-called "analogue" calendars:

1). Lunar (year of the Moon). (Muslim Saudi Arabia)

2). Lunni-solar (the combined: Judaic).

3). Stars Sirius (year of the Star Sirius) or [Julian (Egyptian)].

4). Solar tropical (tropical year of a star of the Sun) [Uniform universal digital in a passive variant, that is without mechanism application «synchronisation saws»].

5). Solar equinoctal (equinoctal year of a star of the Sun) [Gregorian, Iranian Khayyam's Omar, New Julian, Maya].

6). Galactic (year of stars of the Galaxy) [ancient-Indian].

The Moon calendar fixes quantity of turns of the Moon (months) round the Earth. It is constructed on a 19-year-old cycle of Meton («a cycle or the Moon circle»), 235 lunar months of different duration consisting of strictly certain combination (29 and 30 days). In 19 years all phases of the Moon (date of Easter and Solar eclipses) start to repeat completely.

However coincidence this approximates. For 16 full cycles of Meton (19*16=304 years) the error of an advancing of real astronomical Easter in 1 (one) day from virtual calendar date of its approach collects all. Therefore dates of calendar Paschal lag behind dates of real astronomical Easter for 1 whole days each 304 years [from date of true tropical year]. And in Julian Egyptian a calendar backlog makes 1 day each 128 years from date of true tropical year. In the original the Egyptian calendar year before the Konopsky decree had no fixed the New Year (and was not therefore the Julian calendar which it became only after introduction of leap years correction by the Konopsky decree) as did not consider one "superfluous" day which ran each 4 years.

The difference between calendar the New Year and astronomical «sidereal» [that is "star"] the New Year of a star Sirius each 4 years made 1 whole day. Calendar the New Year came earlier than astronomical situation.

Through a cycle consisting of 1461, (365 days simple year * 3 year = 1095 days + 366 whole day leap year=1461 whole day) the New Year on the Egyptian calendar and astronomical the New Year again coincided (the mechanism of passive self-synchronisation) that through first four years of full coincidence again to disperse on new 1457 (1461-4=1457) before their new passive coincidence.

Star (sideral) a calendar of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget (years of board: 246-222 BCE) fixes quantity of turns (years) of the Earth concerning "motionless" in a firmament of the Star Sirius (Sothic). It was time interval (year of a star of Sirius - the Sothic sideral year) between two identical the first [heliacal] in a year lifting of a star of Sirius (Sothic) overhorizon the Earth before sunrise (the Sothic year is interval between heliacal rising of the star Sirius), expressed among days (turns of the Earth about the axis).

Year of a star of Sirius is equal 365.25 days (365 days and 6 hours) exactly. Year of a star Sirius was actual for Egypt. Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget the Konopsky decree has entered «366» intercalary day into an old Egyptian calendar in which before it there were only «365» whole days. The Konopsky decree says:

«That seasons correctly coincided with a peace arrangement and that could not happen so that some national holidays, holidays in the winter, would have for the summer as the sun leaves per day forward each 4 years and that other holidays celebrated in the summer, would have in the future for the winter as it happened before and as will happen if year and consists henceforth from 360 and five additional days; henceforth it is offered to add every 4 year one day, a holiday of Gods of Benefactors, after five additional days and before the New Year that everyone knew that former lacks of notation of seasons and years and knowledge of all device of heavens have been corrected and improved by Gods Benefactors». (So has appeared for 100 leap years in each period for 400 years. Was every year which figure shared on number "4" without the rest leap-year: 400:4=100.)

The Konopsky decree has precisely coordinated among themselves duration of calendar Egyptian year with duration astronomical sidereal year.

Occurrence of Sirius in the sky precisely coincided with flood of the river Nile and defined the beginning and success of a new cycle of the field works, a new rich crop and was de facto the beginning of the New Year (on July, 26th on a Gregorian calendar, on heliacal to rising of a star of Sirius, that is on its occurrence first in year before sunrise).

[In Ancient Egypt the star Sirius had two names: Sothic ("Radiant" or "Brilliant") and Anubis ("the Star of the Dog").] This Egyptian calendar of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget has been adapted in Rome by Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and did not reflect a cycle of field works in Roman Empire.

But real the New Year in Rome de facto historically there was not heliacal lifting over horizon of a star Sirius. Real social the New Year in Rome de facto historically there were pagan Saturnalias in the most long night of year, in day of the Winter solstice (Winter Solstice), 46 years having originally for December, 25th BCE (December, 25th, 46 BCE). Date on January, 1st, 45 years BCE has been made by the beginning of political and economic the New Year, as date of new appointments to posts of the Roman consuls.

Solar the calendar of a star of the Sun fixes quantity of turns (years) of the Earth concerning star Sun among days (alternate consecutive changes of day and night, that is Light and Darkness). It is based on a cycle of a star of the Sun (on «the Sun circle») which is equal to 28 years. Every year the calendar moves for one day of week forward (4 whole weeks for 7 days in everyone: 4*7=28). For 28 years the Sun passes by turns all 4 weeks of month.

Therefore every 28 years the Sun comes back to the beginning of the cycle, and all dates and days of week, that is date of equinoxes (seasons of year) with an error of an astronomical advancing from calendar date in 1 whole days each whole 128 years in the Julian Egyptian calendar of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget completely repeat. The reason consists that duration sidereal year of a star Sirius is more than duration of tropical year of a star of the Sun. The star the Sun is "Sun", instead of a star "Sirius". Their annual cycles are very close, but precisely do not coincide. In it is all business.

Each cycle of the Sun consisting of 28 years, has in the structure 21 of not leap year and 7 leap years: 1 leap year comes in each 3 simple years for 4 year: (7 * 4 = 28).

Month is equal in a cycle of the Sun to 28 days, instead of 29, and not 30, not 31, not 32 and not to 35 days. Therefore the Uniform digital quantum Mathematical base calendar offered by us with duration of month in 28 days is completely adequate to "the Sun circle».

The problem of constant shift of the beginning of year takes place in all analogue calendars with a 28-year-old cycle of a star of the Sun.

The star solar cycle during consisting of 28 years (1401 week), the beginning of each year constantly annually moves. Thus 4 times during this cycle the beginning of year passively the auto synchronisation also begin since the same day of week (that is available 4 under the cycle self-synchronisation).

The first time it occurs in 6 years (28-6 years). The second - in 11 years (6-17 years) [a dual cycle: 6 years + 5 years = 11 years]. The third is again in 6 years (17-23 years) and the Fourth - in 5 years (23-28 years).



The reason of occurrence 4 under cycles passive self-synchronisation (6 years + 11 years + 6 years + 5 years = 28 years), that is occurrences of the same day of week in «the beginning of year», consists that everyone such under cycles self-synchronisation has the variant of group of full number of weeks, multiple to figure "7".

In the first and the third 6-year-old {5 [usual years] + 1 [leap year] = 6 (years cycle)} under cycles passive self-synchronisation there is such group of 313 weeks:

{[(365*5) + (366*1)]:7=313}.

In the second 11-year-old under cycle {8 [usual years] + 3 [leap years] = 11 (years cycle)} there is such group of 514 weeks:

{[(365*8) + (366*3)]:7=514}.

In the fourth 5-year-old under cycle {3 [usual years] + 2 [leap years] = 5 (years cycle)} there is such group of 261 weeks:

{[(365*3) + (366*2)]:7=261}.

In two 6-year-old under cycles self-synchronisation is available on 1 leap-year. In 11-year-old under cycle there are at once 3 leap-years (doubled under cycle [6 (years cycle) + 5 (years cycle) = 11 (years cycle)]). And in last 5-year-old under cycle there are 2 leap-years.

In all passive calendars «the Sun circle» constantly moves ahead on a motionless matrix of days of week. For the first 6 years it moves ahead for 7 days (for 1 full week: 6 + 1 = 7 days). For the following 11 it moves ahead at once for 14 days (for 2 full weeks: 11 + 3 = 14 days). For a second 6-year-old cycle following it «the Sun circle» moves for 7 full days (1 full week: 6 + 1 = 7 days), and at last for the remained 5 years it moves too for 7 full days (1 full week: 5 + 2 = 7 days).

For full «the Sun circle» (for 28 years) any passive solar calendar moves on a matrix of days of week for 35 days for each cycle: (7 + 14 + 7 + 7 = 35 days).

For 10 full cycles (280 years = 28 * 10) 1 full year of shift (365.2421875 days / 35 days = 10 (runs). 4354910 [7142857] cycles).

[Thereupon we will notice that "Ideal" year of a cycle Maya self-synchronisation every 52 week which contain for 364 days exactly (52*7=364 days).]

But, it is obvious that it would be much more convenient, if not only four different years in a cycle from 28 years, and every year would begin stably since the same day of week. And it easily it is possible to reach application of a technique offered by the author active «saws of operated synchronisation».

Fig. 3


28-year-old cycles of the Sun, each of which consists from 4 under cycles self-synchronisation (through time intervals in 6-17-23-28 years)



The Roman abbey Dionisy Small (Dionysus Exiguus, 475÷550CE) was the registrar at Pope John I (the Pope since August, 13th 523 on May, 18th 526CE). In 523 years CE Pope John I have charged Dionisy Small to calculate following [the sixth under the account in the history: from 533 to 627 CE] Christian Paschal [exact calendar dates of approach of the Holiday of Easter - a church Holiday of Resurrection of Jesus Christ].

Christian Paschal traditionally counted on standard term in 95 years (the closest by 100 years) that is on 5 of "lunar cycles of Meton» everyone duration for 19 years (95 years = 5 * 19 years). Directly before Dionisy Small 95-year-old Paschal (patriarch Cyril from Alexandria has calculated on the period with 438 on 532CE [has calculated the fifth under the account Paschal]) and before him patriarch Pheophil from Alexandria (for the period with 343 on 437CE [has calculated the fourth under the account Paschal]). In archives of Vatican was available 3 more previous Paschal (with 248 on 342CE), (with 153 on 247CE), (with 58 on 152CE). In total in the history there were five main above listed Paschalis.

The third under the account Paschal began in 248CE has had for years of a life of Roman Emperor Diocletian [245-311CE] (Diocletian (Latin: Gaius Aurelius {Valerius} Diocletianus Augustus) (245-311) was Roman Emperor from 284 to 305 CE.) [Diocletian was one of the most outstanding Roman Emperors (the Roman Emperor since November, 20th 284 on May, 1st 305CE)]. All calculations of a calendar in Rome were really conducted during a life of abbey Dionisy Small for «Era by Diocletian» [from 284 CE] that for Christian Paschals it was inconvenient for calculation, as all the Paschals before 284CE were expressed in negative figures.

Dionisy Small has entered into church chronology key date «from Date of the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ» considering 5509WC = 1 year CE the General Era (or Common Era – «CE») This date subsequently long time named it is inexact and incorrectly Date from «Jesus Christ Christmas» but this Date to «Jesus Christ Christmas» actually has no relation: date valid «Jesus Christ Christmas» is not known by anybody it can be assumed conditionally only leaning against stories of contemporaries of Jesus Christ.

"General" (that is «Common») it named because since this year within 57 years (3 cycles for 19 years: 3 * 19 = 57 years) Jew-Christians holydays at once two Easters together (they were for them "general" or “common”): Easter Judaic (that is the Exodus or Passover) and Easter Christian (that is Jesus Christ Resurrection or Easter) which followed in 1 day after day of approach of Easter Judaic.

The amount of summa (57 years + [5 * 95] = 57 + 475 = 532 years) Dionisy Small has found out remarkable number «532» years. This number has appeared product «Sun circle» (28 years) on «the Moon circle» (19 years): 532 years = 19 years * 28 years.

The «Great Indiction» Dionisy Small or «the Eternal calendar» has turned out discovered. All dates Christian Paschals after passage of each 532 years simply mechanically repeated. It was necessary to change nothing. So there was discovered the first «an eternal passive calendar». For this reason new sixth Christian Paschal anybody and never any more did not count. The «Great Indiction» was outstanding discovered of the modest monk - "Scythian" or "Greek" - Dionisy Small (Dionysus Exiguus).]

However further it was found out that through each 16 cycles of Meton (16 * 19 years = 304 years) arose backlog of astronomical events from calendar for 1 full day. Such calendar "hastened". It needed to be corrected for 1 day forward every 304 year.

Date 5509WC = 1CE became «the General Era» key date in the history of the Human Civilization. Accordingly date: 5508 WC = 1 BCE - became date «till the General Era» (Before Common Era - BCE).


It is important to underline that from no one other date - except only one date from 5509WC - to calculation of the dates Christian Paschals are not possible.

File:Nuremberg Chronicle Venerable Bede.jpg

Depiction of the Venerable Bede (on CLVIIIv) from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493 CE[i]

 Date «1 BCE» Beìda [Beda] Venerable (has entered into a scientific turn Beda Venerable [Beda Venerabilis, Saint Bede or English Bede the Venerable, Bǣda or Bēda) (was born apprx. 672 or 673, has died - on May, 27th 735), - Benedictine the monk in sacred Peter's monastery in Northumbria and in sacred Pavel's monastery in modern Jarrow. Bede Venerable has died on Thursday, 26 May 735 CE (Ascension Day) and was buried at Jarrow]. [ii]

For chronology Beda Venerable composition «De sex aetatibus mundi»[iii] in which it for the first time it is entered calculating dates by Dionisy Small «before» and «after» a Christmas [more correctly is important: «before» and «after» Jesus Christ Crucifixion] accepted then in the majority of medieval annals after 735 CE.

Thus, Beda Venerable (Beda Venerabilis) has invented «Ancient to Era» (Ancient or Old Era or BCE) which actually in the history of Mankind never was. A Beda Venerable it is artificial has divided a historical axis of time by date of Jesus Christ Crucifixion and Resurrection [in the first week of April 5509 WC in day of the first full moon after day of a spring equinox] on two parts: "before" or «BCE», and "after" or «CE». The Era «BCE» it has been named by "the Ancient Era», and Era «CE» by it has been named by "the New Era».

Beda Venerable precisely also has thought up names to Three Magicians, ostensibly visiting baby Jesus: Kaspar, Baltazar and Melhior. In the New Testament these names were never mentioned, however have backdating entered into the Sacred Scripture (in the Gospel) thanks to church theological scientific authority of Beda Venerable that is, as a matter of fact a question, scientific falsification. His learning and importance for Catholicism has been recognised in 1899 CE when his has been declared by «the Doctor of Church».

In 1899 CE Pope Leo XIII has entered Beda Venerable into scientific theological rank of «the Doctor of Church. It is the one only case in History of Great Britain, when Englishman has received this highest theological scientific rank (Anselm of Canterbury, also has been awarded this rank of the Doctor of Church, he was originally from Italy). [His scholarship and importance to Catholicism were recognised in 1899 when he was declared a Doctor of the Church. In 1899, Bede was made a Doctor of the Church by Leo XIII, a position of theological significance; he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation (Anselm of Canterbury, also a Doctor of the Church, was originally from Italy].



Real astronomical duration of solar year calculates on a way of a star of the Sun on ecliptic two ways on extreme points of a plane of an inclination of an axis of rotation of the Earth, perpendicular to each other.

1). across movement of the Earth (on solstices: Summer and Winter, that is by vertical position of the Sun, that is in Zenith, on tropics of Cancer and the Capricorn).

2). and along movement of the Earth (on equinoxes: Spring and Autumn, that is by vertical position of the Sun, that is in Zenith, that is on a solstice on Equator, that is at "zero" width).

The plane of an inclination of an axis of rotation of the Earth consistently cyclically through each 90 degrees (through each quarter of a turn of the Earth round the Sun) passes from cross-section position in parallel position, and on the contrary.

The first way consists that define time of passage of the Earth between two consecutive points of "solstices" (Winter or Summer). During these moments the Sun costs precisely vertically (in Zenith) over a head of the person over tropic of Cancer or over tropic of Capricorn during time either Summer, or the Winter solstice accordingly when the shade completely disappears.

These are points of the maximum vertical lifting of a star of the Sun over horizon on Meridian that is on width when a star the Sun costs precisely vertically over a head of the person in a point of the maximum Zenith. From here there was a word-combination "solstice" (or "celestial").

This Solar "tropical" year between two peak points of "solstices" on a corresponding tropic (the Solar tropical year) has appeared more shortly sidereal year of a star of Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget (the Sothic sideral year: 365 days of 6 hours) for 11 minutes 15 seconds. It is equal 365.2421875 days (365 days of 5 hours of 48 minutes of 45 seconds).

This Tropical year calculated by I. Kepler, is the reference calendar year, a reference measure of true historical time of Mankind. With this Tropical year all seasons of year are connected.

The second way consists that define time of passage of the Earth between two consecutive points of "equinoxes" (Autumn or Spring). The equinox point appears equally removed on horizon, on a parallel, on a longitude within a year a point of rising of a star of the Sun in the east and calling of a star of the Sun in the West when the Sun passes in Zenith through equator from Northern hemisphere in Southern in the summer, and back from Southern in Northern - in the winter (the Sun to travel from an equinox to the same equinox again). With equinoctal so-called «the Easter Moon» (the first full moon after a spring equinox) year is connected.

Solar "horizontal" equinoctal (the Solar equinoctal year) is longer than tropical "vertical" solar year for 18.36 seconds and is equal 365.2424000 days (365 days of 5 hours of 49 minutes of 3.36 seconds).

During the moment of an equinox the star the Sun is located precisely on the middle between two extreme points (between tropic of Cancer and tropic of Capricorn), that is at midday the Sun costs vertically in zenith strictly over zero width of Equator of the Earth, passing from Northern hemisphere in Southern and on the contrary (from Northern solstice to the Southern solstice in the Summer and then in the opposite direction in the Winter). In day of an equinox duration of Night is precisely equal to duration of Day (50% on 50%). From here is the term "equinox".

In the Gregorian calendar duration of star-solar year (the Solar Gregorian year) it is artificial it is defined (Gregorian calendar year), equal 365.2425000 days (365 days of 5 hours of 49 minutes of 12 seconds). It for 8.64 seconds is longer Solar equinoctal year (the Solar equinoctal year) and for 27 seconds is longer than Solar tropical year (the Solar tropical year).

Lunisolar the calendar fixes [measures] duration of one turn of the Earth (duration of year) rather Sun by number of turns of the Moon (months) round the Earth and number of days in lunar month. In lunisolar Hebrew calendar year has duration of 365.2468000 days (365 days of 5 hours of 55 minutes of 23.52 seconds)., It for 06 minutes 38.52 seconds are longer than tropical year.

Galactic sidereal year (galaxy sideral year) «distant stars» is longer than sidereal year of "a near star» Sirius (the Sothic sideral year). It makes 365.2563630 days (365 days of 6 hours of 9 minutes of 9.76 seconds), that is for 20 minutes and 25 seconds is longer than Solar tropical year (the Solar tropical year).

Sidereal year of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget (the Sothic sideral year) has appeared more long Solar tropical year (the Solar tropical year) for 11 minutes and 15 seconds [11.25 minutes/60 minutes = 0.1875 hours/24 hour = 0.0078125 days]. This fact has been calculated from practice (empirically) on the basis not coincidence of calendar and astronomical date in approach of solstices to 1 whole days in each whole 128 years in a solar cycle Julian the Egyptian calendar of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget.

The astronomical fact of a solstice of a star of the Sun attacked to the Earth for 1 day earlier each 128 years, than it followed from calendar calculations on the Julian Egyptian calendar (Julian calendar) stars Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget.

Because of this disagreement of calendar dates and real astronomical phenomena by the end of XVI century CE the astronomical real spring equinox was necessary any more on March, 21st on a calendar where it was during the Nikkei Cathedral [Council of Nicæa] which passed from May, 20th till August, 25th 325 years CE [May, 20th to August 25th, 325CE], and on March, 11th by date of an actual calendar. An error of a calendar from the moment of the Nikkei Cathedral 325CE (March, 21st), [The Nicene Council in 325CE (March, 21st)], has reached 10 days and by that, in particular, Easter holiday on a calendar has moved from spring by the summer.

For this reason in 1582 CE Pope Gregory XIII has been compelled to carry out reform Julian the Egyptian religious calendar in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget. In 1582 СЕ the former professor of the initial right of Bolonsky University Hugo Buonkampeni (1502-1582 СЕ), become in 1572 СЕ Pope Grigory XIII, has created the special commission from several clerics and astronomers into which structure it has entered Ignatius Dante (1536-1586 СЕ) - the professor of astronomy known at that time and mathematics of Bolonsky University. It was entrusted to this commission to develop the project of new calendar reform.

Julius Caesar in 45 year BCE according to the advice of the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes the Egyptian calendar of a star Sirius has entered in Rome in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget (the Sothic sideral year). Year of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget (365 days and 6 hours) for 11 minutes and 15 seconds exceeded Solar tropical year (the Solar tropical year), and for 10 minutes of 56.64 seconds exceeded the Solar equinoctal year.

Astronomers of Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 CE have easily defined a difference in duration of real astronomical tropical year and calendar Egyptian year of a star Sirius in a variant of Pharaoh Ptolemy III Everget. They have simply divided product (1 days = 24 hours * 60 minutes = 1440 minutes) for full 128 years (1440/128=11.25) and have received required 11.25 minutes (11 minutes of 15 seconds) differences.

So that the astronomical point of a solstice (Summer and Winter) did not move from the place in a calendar and always coincided with virtual calendar calculation, it was necessary calendar year of a star of Sirius (the Sothic sideral year) to truncate for 11 minutes of 15 seconds. The required length of year has turned out equal 365 days of 5 hours of 48 minutes of 45 seconds (365.2421875).

It has appeared theoretically exact value of the Solar tropical year which Johann Kepler (Kepler) has correctly calculated under experimental tables of supervision (the Rudolphine Tables) only in 1627 CE. (In 1627, Kepler used the observation of Tycho Brahe and Waltherus to produce the most accurate tables up to that time, the Rudolphine Tables. He evaluated the tropical year as 365 solar days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45 seconds, – that has made 365.2421875 days.) [iv]

The commission of Vatican develops a new calendar under the direction of Pope Grigory XIII

(In 1582 CE)


In Rome in an observatory of Vatican then in 1582 CE well knew value of 365.2424 days (365 days of 5 hours of 49 minutes of 3.36 seconds) for the Solar equinoctal year. Therefore it is in round figures artificial have accepted for the Gregorian calendar value of duration of solar year (the Solar Gregorian year) equal 365.2425 days (365 days of 5 hours and 49 minutes and 12 seconds). It as we have shown earlier, for 8.64 seconds is longer true the Solar equinoctal year and for 27 seconds is longer than true the Solar tropical year.

It is obvious that the error in 27 seconds for 1 year (0.0075 hours for a year) between the Gregorian and Tropical year gives an error in 1 whole day between them for 3200 years (24:0.0075=3200).

[i]Bede (1943). Jones, C. W., ed. Bedae Opera de Temporibus. Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America.

Bede. «De sex aetatibus mundi»,

[ii]Bede (1943). Jones, C. W., ed. Bedae Opera de Temporibus. Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America.

Bede. «De sex aetatibus mundi»,

[iii]Bede (1943). Jones, C. W., ed. Bedae Opera de Temporibus. Cambridge, MA: Mediaeval Academy of America.

Bede. «De sex aetatibus mundi»,

[iv] Wikipedia on Tropical year.